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Ph.D. York University (1975)

Research Interests: behavioural psychology, behaviour analysis, behaviourism, experimental social psychology, social learning.

Office: 6-24   Phone: (780) 492-3322   Email:

I am currently Professor Emeritus in the Department of Sociology at the University of Alberta (Canada). I am the former Director of the Centre for Experimental Sociology, and retired Adjunct Professor in the Department of Neuroscience (Medicine). I am also the Director of the Behavioural Research Unit of the Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases Laboratory (MCVD Lab) in the Alberta Diabetes Institute.

At the present time I continue as a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, an award given for my significant contributions to the discipline of psychology. In the past, I received the Faculty of Arts Research Award (Professor) for outstanding research and scholarship, and was nominated for the Gordon Kaplin University Award for lifetime achievement in research (especially my work on activity anorexia). My research interests are broad and varied, but I have emphasized the experimental analysis of choice and preference, the effects of reward on intrinsic motivation, conditioned taste aversion induced by physical activity, a bio-behavioral model of activity anorexia, and evolution, environment and obesity.



I am working on the problem of infertility of female JCR:LA-cp rats genetically prone for obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Currently, we are investigating the metabolic and reproductive benefits to obese/PCOS prone rat pups raised on a regimen of food restriction and 4 h of daily exercise (wheel running). The research is conducted in my laboratory (Behavioral Research Unit) in the Biological Sciences Building at the University of Alberta. My co-investigators are Abdoulaye Diané, Donna Vine, Jim Russell and Spence Proctor (Director MCVD Lab) of the Alberta Diabetes Institute.  This research is an extension of my research focused on the interrelationship of genotype and feeding environment for obesity and anorexia.


Behavior Analysis and Learning (5th edition) with Carl D. Cheney, Psychology Press (2013).

Prior caloric restriction increases survival of pre-pubertal obese- and PCOS-prone rats exposed to a challenge of time-limited feeding and physical activity. Journal of Applied Physiology (with Diané, Vine, Heth, Russell, and Proctor).

Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) down regulation after weaning is associated with hyperphagia-induced obesity in JCR rats over-expressing neuropeptide Y. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism (with Diané, Russell, Heth, Vine, Richard, and Proctor).




When a novel taste is paired with illness or nausea, the taste is subsequently avoided—an effect known as conditioned taste aversion (CTA). If you regularly eat steak but one day eat steak with sauce béarnaise and subsequently become sick, perhaps because of the flu, you are likely to dislike sauce béarnaise and avoid any foods with this taste. In 2000, we (Sarah Salvy, Don Heth and myself) began a systematic series of experiments on CTA induced by physical activity (wheel running) using laboratory rats. That is, we conditioned tastes by pairing them with wheel running rather than the flu-induced illness. The idea came from our work on activity anorexia and earlier experiments by a research team at Memorial University, Newfoundland. To shorten the story, we found that when wheel running followed the taste, animals avoided solutions containing the taste and the more they ran the greater the aversion. We also discovered that the animals developed a preference for tastes that came after bouts of wheel running—a conditioned taste preference or CTP. The after-effects of wheel running act as positive reinforcement—relating to activation of the neural reward system—and animals drink more from solutions containing the tastes associated with the rewarding after-effects. Our work along with other researchers in the field suggested that exercise or physical activity has different effects depending on its temporal location with respect to the taste. If exercise comes after the taste, CTA occurs. When physical activity comes before the taste, CTP is induced. These observations suggest that exercise has bivalent effects and it should be possible within the same animal to insert exercise between two tastes, resulting in CTA to the flavor that comes before the physical activity and CTP to the flavor that follows the exercise. In 2011, Christine Dobek, working with Don Heth and myself, showed conclusively that the bivalent effects of wheel running were reliable and did not depend on pre-exposure to wheel running as earlier experiments had suggested. Sarah Salvy, currently a research scientist at the Rand Corporation in California, has extended our findings to humans, showing CTA induced by treadmill running at 80% of maximum heart rate (Havermans, Salvy & Jansen, 2009). 


In the past, I published with Judy Cameron an extensive meta-analysis of the effects of reward/reinforcement on intrinsic motivation. The meta-analysis appeared in the Review of Educational Research (1994) and showed that the so-called "negative effect of rewards" was limited to a circumscribed set of conditions that were easily avoided in everyday life. Other evidence in this article indicated that reward/reinforcement could be used to enhance intrinsic motivation. Generally, my research shows that
reward and incentive systems can be used to promote performance in education, business and other applied settings without loss of intrinsic interest. The findings help to resolve the theoretical and practical debate between cognitive and behavioral psychology about the side effects of reinforcement contingencies.

In a review article published in The Behavior Analyst, Cameron, Banko and Pierce (2001, Vol. 24, pp. 1-44) outlined the claim that rewards have pervasive negative effects on intrinsic motivation but found evidence that these claims are a myth. The article titled, “Pervasive Negative Effects of Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation: The Myth Continues”, has more than 5,000 downloads, and reports a hierarchical meta-analysis of the literature based on 145 studies (the most inclusive meta-analysis to date). The results confirm our 1994 meta-analysis and further specified how rewards could be used effectively in applied settings.

Based on the meta-analysis article, Judy Cameron and I wrote the book Reward and Intrinsic Motivation: Resolving the Controversy (Barnes Garvey Press, 2002: In addition, we received $120,000 as a SSHRC research grant to conduct further experiments on how rewards based on achievement can be used to enhance performance and interest.



I have been extensively involved with the training of graduate students in terms of research for more than 35 years. As an experimental researcher, I was trained using the apprenticeship system and I have carried on this tradition of training with my own students. The basic idea of apprenticeship is that the students work closely with the professor on various research projects and utilize their training in experimental design, computer analyses of results, and communication of results in professional articles. Many of my published articles include graduate students as co-authors. I have supervised or co-supervised more than 50 graduate students' theses and dissertations in the Departments of Sociology, Psychology, Educational Psychology, Physical Education, Medicine and Neuroscience.

In addition, I have served as a member on approximately 60 thesis committees. Many of my students have obtained academic positions and I continue to write to them, see them at conferences, and work on research projects with them. As an example, Terry Belke conducted research with me on the matching law and subsequently went to Harvard University to study with Richard Herrnstein and Gene Heyman. He is currently an associate professor at Mount Allison University and a leading behavioral researcher in the study of wheel running reinforcement, the matching law and behavioral economics. In addition, Sarah-Jeanne Salvy from the University of Quebec at Montreal (Young Scientist Award Winner, 2000) worked with me on experiments concerned with conditioned taste aversion and activity anorexia from 2000-2003. Under my supervision Sarah won the APA Dissertation Award (Division 25) for 2003 and obtained a post-doctoral SSHRC fellowship at the University of Toronto, 2004. Sarah subsequently took a post as an assistant professor in Pediatric Medicine at SUNY (Buffalo) and is now a research scientist at the Rand Corporation in California studying social factors in obesity. Currently, I am co-supervising Abdoulaye Diané’s post-doctoral research (with Spence Proctor) on activity anorexia and obesity, using the JCR obese rat model. Dr. Diané has maintained a highly productive research and publication agenda in my laboratory.

As a final point I wish to mention my contribution to research in the graduate program of Sociology. During my tenure as Associate Chair Graduate, I instituted a one-day conference for graduate student research (Research Day). This conference was implemented to encourage graduate students to prepare for and give professional presentations. Graduate students learn how to stay on topic, select audio-visual material to highlight their presentations, speak with a voice of confidence, and make their points within a circumscribed time limit (10 minutes). Research Day has continued over the years and is now a formal part of our graduate program. In 2001, the Department of Sociology renamed the event in my honor as the W. David Pierce Research Colloquium. Overall, I have made important contributions to graduate research and I continue to view graduate research and education as a central part of my academic interests and career.


Diané, A. 2012 Post-docotoral Fellow, Neuroscience & Behavior, U of A, Nutrition, Alberta Diabetes Institute.

Dubek, C 2011 BSc. Honors, Taste aversion, U of A, Psychology. Currently at Queens University, Clinical Neuroscience.

Foisy, M 2010 BSc. Honors, Anorexia, U of A, Psychology (Rising Star Award for Young Scientist). Completed MA, Behavioral Neuroscience, University of British Columbia.

Lynch, S. 2010 Ph.D., Reward/motivation, U of A Ed. Psychology. Currently is the Director, Centre for Autism Services Alberta.

Biondo, M. Ph.D. ABD, Taste aversion, U of A, Sociology. Currently in nursing, NS.

Owczarczyk, J 2006 BSc. Honors, Obesity, U of A, Psychology. Currently in nursing, AB.

Gear, A. 2007 Ph.D., Reward/motivation, U of A, Ed. Psychology.

Wizniak, R. 2008 Ph.D., Reward/motivation, U of A, Ed. Psychology.

Banko, K. 2007 Ph.D., Reward/motivation, U of A, Psychology. (SSHRC Scholar, CPA Award). Currently is Research Scientist at the Department of Defence R & D Canada.

Salvy, S. 2003 Ph.D., Taste aversion, University of Montreal (NSERC Scholar; APA Dissertation Award, 2003). Currently is Research Scientist, Rand Corporation, CA.

Mandrusiuk, M. 2002 B.Sc. Honors, Anorexia, U of A, Psychology. Currently is a Psychologist at Adler School of Professional Psychology, Vancouver, BC.

So, S. 2001 M.Ed., Reward/motivation, U of A, Demography.

Banko, K. 2001 MA, Reward/motivation, U of A, Psychology.

Doreland, K. 2001 BA Honors, Anorexia, U of Western, Psychology.

Stratkotter, R. 1999 Ph.D. ABD, U of A, Sociology.

Inglis, P. 1999 BA Honors, Anorexia, U of A, Psychology. Currently is a lawyer.

Desjarlais, D. 1998 BA Honors, Anorexia, U of A, Sociology.

Lampman, D. 1996 B.Sc., Anorexia, U of A, Psychology.

Lazaruk, T. 1996 B.Sc., Anorexia, U of A, Psychology.

Morse, A. 1994 M.Sc., Anorexia, U of A, Surgery.

Oss, J. 1993 MA, Anorexia, U of A, Sociology.

Symbaluk, D. 1993 MA, Modelling/pain, U of A, Sociology. Currently is Associate Professor, Grant MacEwan University, AB.

Bensalah, K. 1993 MA, Self-perception, U of A, Sociology.

Cameron, J. 1992 Ph.D., Reward/motivation, U of A, Ed. Psychology. Currently is Professor (Emeritus), Department of Educational Psychology, U of A.

Kwan, T. 1993 Ph.D., Behavioral choice, U of A, Psychology. Currently is an M.D. in family medicine, Moncton, NB.

Symons, F. 1992 M.Ed., Functional analysis, U of A, Ed. Psychology. Currently is Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota.

Day, H. 1991 B.Sc., Anorexia, U of A, Psychology.

Symbaluk, D. 1990 BA Honors, Anorexia, U of A, Sociology.

Kwan, T. 1990 M.Sc., Behavioral choice, U of A, Psychology.

Bose, R. 1990 B.Sc., Anorexia, U of A, Psychology.

Brown-Cech, B. 1990 BA, Anorexia, U of A, Psychology.

Boer, D. 1989 Ph.D., Anorexia, U of A, Psychology. Currently is Associate Professor, Arts & Social Science, The University of Waikato, NZ.

Belke, T. 1988 MA, Behaviorial choice, U of A, Sociology (Ph.D. Harvard, Psychology). Currently is Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Mt. Allison University, NB.

Mumby, D. 1988 Ph.D., Polydipsia, U of A, Psychology.

Hensch, S. 1987 Ph.D., Operant behavior, U of A, Psychology.

Reid, P. 1986 Ph.D., Pavlovian processes, U of A, Psychology. Currently is Vice President, Animal Behavior Center, ASPCA, Urbana, Ill.

Wheeler, G. 1986 Ph.D., Anorexia, U of A, Physical Ed. Currently is Manager, Research & Counselling, Steadward Centre, U of A.

Powell, R. 1984 Ph.D., Behavioral choice, U of A, Psychology. Currently is Assistant Professor, Grant MacEwan University, AB.

Greer, S. 1983 Ph.D. Behavioral choice, U of A Psychology. Currently is Supervisor, Clinical Psychology, Edmonton, Alberta Health Services.

Baker, I. 1983 Ph.D. ABD, U of A, Psychology.

Hatt, L. 1983 Ph.D. Behavior /pain, U of A, Psychology. Currently is Associate Professor, Psychology, The University of British Columbia, BC.

Duncan, S. 1983 BA Honors, Anorexia, U of A, Psychology.

Milke, D. 1982 BA, Anorexia, U of A, Psychology. Currently is Senior Researcher, CapitalCare, Edmonton, AB.

Knowles, B. 1981 M.Sc., Anorexia, U of A, Psychology.

Koch, W. 1981 Ph.D., Behavioral compliance, U of A, Psychology. Currently is a Clinical Psychologist, North Vancouver, BC.

Stefan, L. 1980 M.Sc., Anorexia, U of A, Psychology. Currently is President & Owner, Stefan, Fraser & Associates, Inc., Vancouver, BC.

Sunahara, D. 1980 Ph.D., Behavioral choice, U of A, Sociology.

Sharon, M. 1978       MA, Social comparison, U of A, Sociology.

Templeton,D. 1977 Ph.D., Social psychology, U of A, Sociology.




Pierce, W. D. & Cheney, C. D.  (publication,January,2013). Behavior Analysis and Learning 5th ed. New York: Psychology Press.

Pierce, W. D. & Cheney, C. D.  (2008). Behavior Analysis and Learning 4th ed.  New York: Psychology Press.

Pierce, W. D. & Cheney, C. D.  (2004). Behavior Analysis and Learning 3rd ed.  Mahwah, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cameron, J. & Pierce, W. D. (2002) Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: Resolving the Controversy. Bergin & Garvey Press.

Pierce, W. D. & Epling, W. F.  (1999). Behavior Analysis and Learning 2nd ed.  Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Prentice Hall.

Epling, W. F. & Pierce, W. D. (Eds., 1996). Activity anorexia: Theory, research & treatment.  New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum.

Pierce, W. D. & Epling, W. F.  (1995). Behavior Analysis and Learning.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice Hall. 

Mellof, W. & Pierce, W. D. (Eds., 1994). Introduction to sociology.  Toronto:  Nelson Canada.

Epling, W. F. & Pierce, W. D.  (1991). Solving the anorexia puzzle:  A scientific approach..  Toronto:  Hogrefe and Huber.

Refereed Articles:

Diane, A., Pierce, W.D., Heth, C.D., Russell, J.C., Richard, D., & Proctor, S. (2012) Feeding history and obese-prone genotype increase survival of rats exposed to a challenge of food restriction and wheel Running. Obesity, 20, 1787-1795.

Dobek,C., Heth, C.D., & Pierce, W. D. (2012) Bivalent effects of wheel running on taste conditioning Behavioural Processes,89, 36-38.

Pierce, W. D.,  Diané, A., Heth, C. D., Russell, J. C., & Proctor, S. D. (2010) Evolution and obesity: Resistance of obese-prone rats to the challenge of food restriction and wheel running. International Journal of Obesity. 34, 589-592.

Pierce, W. D., & Heth, C. D. (2010). Blocking of conditioned taste avoidance induced by wheel running. Behavioural Processes, 83, 41-47.

Belke, T. & Pierce, W. D.  (2009). Body weight manipulation, reinforcement value and choice between sucrose and wheel running: A behavioral economic analysis. Behavioural Processes, 80, 147-156.

Pierce, W.D., Heth, C.D.,  Owczarczzyk, J.C., Russell, J.C., & Proctor, S.D. (2007). Overeating by young obese-prone and lean rats caused by tastes associated with low energy foods. Obesity, 15, 1969-1979.

Heth, CD & Pierce, WD. (2007) The role of pre-exposure to novel food tastes in activity-based conditioned taste avoidance. Learning & Motivation, 38, 35-43.

Belke, T.W., Pierce, W.D., & Duncan, I.D.  (2006)  Reinforcement value and substitutability of sucrose and wheel running: Implications for activity anorexia. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 86, 131-158.

Cameron, J., Pierce, W. D.,  Banko, K. M. , & Greer. A (2005). Achievement-based rewards an intrinsic motivation: A test of cognitive mediators. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 641-655.

Cameron, J., & Pierce, W. D. (2005) Rewards and motivation in the classroom.  Academics Exchange Quarterly, 9, 67-71.

Salvy, S., Pierce, W.D., Heth, C.D., & Russell (2004). Taste avoidance induced by wheel running: Effects of backward pairings and robustness of conditioned taste aversion. Physiology and Behavior,82, 303-308.

Cameron, J., Pierce, W. D., & So, S. (2004). Rewards, task difficulty, and intrinsic motivation: A test of learned industriousness theory. Alberta Journal of Educational Research. 50, 316-319.

Belke, T. W., Pierce, W. D., & Jensen, K. (2004). Effect of short-term pre-feeding and body weight on wheel running an responding reinforced by the opportunity to run in a wheel. Behavioural Processes, 67, 1-10.

Salvy, S., Pierce, W. D., Heth, C.D. , & Russell, J. C.  (2004). Conditioned taste aversiom induced by wheel running: Further evidence on wheel running duration. Behavioural Processes, 66, 101-106.

Salvy, S., Pierce, W. D., Heth, C.D. , & Russell, J. C.  (2003). Wheel running produces conditoned food aversion.  Physiology and Behavior, 80, 89-94.

Pierce, W. D., Sydie, R. A., Stratkotter, R., & Krull, C. (2003). Social concepts and judgments: A semantic differential analysis of the concepts feminist, man and woman. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 27, 338-346.

Pierce, W. D., Cameron, J., Banko, K. M., & So, S.(2003).  Rewards, performance standards, and intrinsic motivation, Psychological Record, 53, 561-579.

Pierce, W. D. & Cameron, J.  (2002). A summary of the effects of reward contingencies on interest and performance.  Behavior Analyst Today, 3, 221-228.

Salvy, S., Pierce, W. D., Heth, C.D. , & Russell, J. C.  (2002). Pre-exposure to wheel running disrupts taste aversion conditioning. Physiology and Behavior, 76, 51-56.

Heth, C. D., Inglis, P., Russell, J. C., & Pierce, W. D. (2001) Conditioned taste aversion induced by wheel running is not due to novelty of the wheel. Physiology & Behavior, 74, 53-56.

Cameron, J., Banko, K. M., & Pierce, W. D.  (2001).  Pervasive negative effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation:  The myth continues.  The Behavior Analyst, 24, 1-44.

Pierce, W. D. (2001). Activity anorexia: Biological, behavioral, and neural levels of selection.  Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24 (3), 551-552.

Eisenberger, R., Pierce, W. D., & Cameron, J. (1999).  Effects of reward on intrinsic motivation: Negative, neutral, and positive. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 677-691.

Cameron, J., & Pierce, W.D. (1997). Rewards, interest and performance: A summary of the experimental literature. American Compensation Association Journal: Perspectives on Compensation and Benefits, Winter, 6-15.

Symbaluk, D., Heth, D., Cameron, J., & Pierce, W. D.  (1997).  Social modeling, monetary incentives, and pain endurance: The roles of self-efficacy and pain perceptions.  Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 258-269.

Cameron, J. & Pierce, W. D.  (1996). The debate about rewards and intrinsic motivation: Protests and accusations do not alter the results. Review of Educational Research, 66, 39-52.

Krull, C. & Pierce, W. D.  (1995). IQ testing in America:  A victim of its own success.  The Alberta Journal of Educational Research: Special Issue on The Bell Curve, XLI, 349-354.

Morse, A. D., Russell, J. C., Hunt, T. W. M., Wood, G. O., Epling, W. F., Pierce, W. D.  (1995). Diurnal variation of intensive running in food-deprived rats. Canadian Journal of Physiological Pharmacology, 73, 1519-1523.

Pierce, W. D. & Epling, W. F.  (1995). The applied importance of research on the matching law. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 237-241.

Pierce, W. D. & Epling, W. F.  (1994).  Activity anorexia: The interplay of basic and applied behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 17, 7-23.

Cameron, J. & Pierce, W. D.  (1994). Reinforcement, reward, and intrinsic motivation:  A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 64, 363-423.

Wheeler, G. D., McFadyen, S. G., Symbaluk, D., Pierce, W. D., & Cumming, D. C.  (1992). Effects of training on in serum testosterone and cortisole levels in wrestlers.  Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 2, 257-260.

Pierce, W. D. & Epling, W. F.  (1991). Can operant research with animals rescue the science of behavior?  The Behavior Analyst, 14, 129-122.

Wheeler, G. D., Singh, M., Pierce, W. D., Epling, W. F., & Cumming, D. C.  (1991). Endurance training decreases serum testosterone levels in men without change in LH pulsatile release.  Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 72, 422-425.

Boer, D. P., Epling, W. F., Pierce, W. D., & Russell, J. C.  (1990). Suppression of food deprivation-induced high-rate running in rats. Physiology and Behavior, 48, 339-342.

Spetch, M., Belke, T. W., Barnet, R., Dunn, R., & Pierce, W. D.  (1990). Suboptimal choice in a percentage-reinforcement procedure:  Effects of signal condition and terminal-link length. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 53, 219 -234.

Russell, J. C., Amy, R. M., Manickavel, V., Dolphin, P. J., Epling, W. F., Pierce, W. D., & Boer, D. P.  (1989). Prevention of  myocardial disease in JCR: LA-corpulent rats by running. Journal of Applied Physiology, 66, 1649-1655.

Belke, T., Pierce, W. D., & Powell, R.  (1989). Determinants of choice for pigeons and humans on concurrent-chain schedules of reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 52, 97-109.

Heth, C. D., Pierce, W. D., Belke, T. W., & Hensch, S. A.  (1989). On estimating the parameters of the generalized matching law.  Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 52, 65-76.

Pierce, W. D. & Belke, T.  (1988). Stimulus control of consumer opinion by brand names: A social conditioning analysis. The Psychological Record, 38, 227-236.

Epling, W. F. & Pierce, W. D.  (1988). Activity-based anorexia: A biobehavioral perspective. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 7, 475-485.

Russell, J. C., Epling, W. F., Pierce, W. D., Amy, R. M., & Boer, D. P.  (1987). Induction of voluntary prolonged running by rats. Journal of Applied Physiology, 63, 2549-2553.

Pierce, W. D., Belke, T. (1987). Which Coke is it? Social influence in the marketplace. Psychological Reports, 60, 279-286.

Epling, W. F. & Pierce, W. D.  (1986). The basic importance of applied behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 1986,9, 89-99.

Pierce, W. D., Epling, W. F., & Boer, D.  (1986).  Deprivation and satiation: The interrelations between food and wheel running.  Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 46,199-210.

Epling, W. F. & Pierce, W. D.  (1984). Activity-based anorexia in rats as a function of opportunity to run on an activity wheel. Nutrition and Behavior, 2, 37-49.

Pierce, W. D. & Epling, W. F.  (1984). On the persistence of cognitive explanation: implications for behavior analysis. Behaviorism, 12, 15-27. (Abstract reprinted in Philosophical Index,1985).

Epling, W. F., Pierce, W.D. & Stefan, L.  (1983). A theory of activity-based anorexia. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 3, 27-46.

Pierce, W. D. & Epling, W. F.  (1983). Choice matching and human behavior:  A review of the literature. The Behavior Analyst, 6, 57-76.

Epling, W. F. & Pierce, W. D.  (1983). Applied behavior analysis: New directions from the laboratory. The Behavior Analyst, 6, 27-37.

Pierce, W. D. & Ungar S.  (1983). Status characteristics in restricted communication networks, Replications in Social Psychology, 5, 1-8.

Epling, W. F., Pierce, W. D., & Greer, S.  (1982). Demand characteristics in an operant investigation.  Psychological Reports, 50, 337-338.

Sunahara, D. & Pierce, W. D.  (1982). The matching law and bias in a social exchange involving choice between alternatives.  Canadian Journal of Sociology, 7, 145-166.

Pierce, W. D. & Sharon, M.  (1982). The effects of withdrawing performance feedback and social comparison cues on self and other performance expectations.  Canadian Journal of Sociology, 7, 181-199.

Pierce, W. D. & Epling, W. F.  (1980). What happened to analysis in applied behavior analysis? The Behavior Analyst, 3, 1-9.

Pierce, W. D. & Harrell, W. A.  (1978). Threats to internal validity in the Burgess and Neilsen social exchange experiment.  American Sociological Review, 43, 592-597.

Pierce, W. D.  (1977). Rank consensus and experimentally induced changes in interpersonal evaluation. Psychological Reports, 41,1331-1338.


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Contact - Dr. W. David Pierce