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Chemistry is the study of MATTER and the changes that take place with that matter. Everything on Earth and in the universe is made up of MATTER. MATTER is the name scientists have given to everything that you can touch, or see, or feel, or smell. Here's a great index site map for the entire study of chemistry: INDEX MATTER has many properties. It can have PHYSICAL properties like different densities, melting points, boiling points, freezing points, color or smells. There are also CHEMICAL properties that define matter like what elements combine with each other in reactions. There are three main STATES of matter:
LIQUIDS can either be acidic or basic
ACID: A solution that has an excess of H+ ions. It comes from the Latin word "acidus" which means "sharp". Acids turn litmus paper or red cabbage juice red. Acids are compounds which break into Hydrogen (H+) ions and another compound when placed in a water solution. Acids taste sour.
A solution that has an excess of OH- ions. Another word for base is ALKALI. Bases turn litmus paper or red cabbage juice blue. Bases are compounds which break up into Hydroxide (OH-) ions and another compound when placed in a water solution. Bases taste bitter and are slippery.

All matter consists of atoms which are composed of negative electrons
and positive charged particles called as well as neutral charged particles
in the nucleus of the atom.


Acids and bases are substances that are capable of splitting off or taking up hydrogen ions.
Acids are often referred to as proton donors because an H+ ion - hydrogen minus its electron - is simply a proton.
The relationship between [H+] and pH is shown in the table below alongside some common examples of
acids and bases in everyday life.
  [H+] pH Example
Acids 1 X 100 0 HCl 
1 x 10-1 1 Stomach acid
1 x 10-2 Lemon juice
1 x 10-3 Vinegar
1 x 10-4 4 Soda
1 x 10-5 5 Rainwater
1 x 10-6 6 Milk
Neutral 1 x 10-7 7 Pure water
Bases 1 x 10-8 8 Egg whites
1 x 10-9 9 Baking Soda
1 x 10-10 10 Tums® antacid
1 x 10-11 11 Ammonia
1 x 10-12 12 Mineral Lime - Ca(OH)2
1 x 10-13 13  Drano®
1 x 10-14 14 NaOH

Here's an atom with 6 electrons flying about the nucleus which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons.

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Mystery White Powders
Testing substance Red cabbage juice Water reaction Iodine reaction Vinegar reaction Mystery powder is?
Types of reactions Red equals an acid, blue or green equals a base Dissolve or doesn't dissolve, fizzles or hardens Black indicates presence of starch or sugar A strong fizzle equals the presence of baking soda Choose from: alum, baking soda, corn starch, calcium carbonate, flour
Powder A          
Powder B          
Powder C          
Powder D          
Powder E          
Powder F          

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