|" If we want students to learn, we must show them how. Teachers engage in
non-fiction inquiry choose their own topic of study, research it, craft a final report and present their findings. In my staff development work, I encourage teachers to follow the
"gradual release of responsibility" model (Pearson and Gallagher 1983), explicitly presenting learning strategies and then gradually handing over responsibility while modeling and guiding."
Nonfiction Matters by Stephanie Harvey
Also see page 53 for explanation of gradual release of
Sage on the Stage vs. Guide on the Side
"A good teacher knows when to act as
Sage on the Stage and when to act as a Guide on
the Side. Because student-centred learning
can be time-consuming and messy, efficiency will sometimes argue for the Sage. When
students are busy making up their own minds, the role of the teacher shifts.
When questioning, problem-solving and
investigation become the priority classroom activities, the teacher becomes a Guide on the
WIRED Classroom Jamie
Jamie McKenzie's article The WIRED Classroom provides a list
of descriptors of the role
of a teacher who is a Guide
on the Side while students are conducting their investigations.
"... the teacher is circulating, redirecting, disciplining,
questioning, assessing, guiding, directing, fascinating, validating, facilitating, moving,
monitoring, challenging, motivating, watching, moderating, diagnosing, trouble-shooting,
observing, encouraging, suggesting, watching, modeling and clarifying."
The teacher is on the move, checking over
shoulders, asking questions and teaching mini-lessons for individuals and groups who need
a particular skill. Support is customized and individualized. The Guide
on the Side sets clear expectations, provides explicit directions, and keeps the
learning well structured and productive.
From Now On The Educational Technology Journal
WIRED Classroom Jamie McKenzie
|In a thinking curriculum, students develop an in-depth
understanding of the essential concepts and processes for dealing with those
concepts, similar to the approach taken by experts in tackling their tasks. For example, students use
original sources to construct historical accounts; they design experiments to answer their
questions about natural phenomena; they use mathematics to model real- world events
and systems; and they write for real audiences.
(Herman et al., 1992,