HAYDON AND URRY LTD was a London-based firm that produced cinematographic equipment and films during the late 1890s. The company's involvement in the cinema trade was short-lived, but they are noted for supplying a cinematograph (The Eragraph) to many of the travelling showmen. It was the showmen who introduced the new novelty of "living pictures" to the general public in their fairground shows - and it was the popularity of the travelling shows that helped to speed the growth of the cinema across Britain.
Haydon & Urry, Limited was formed in 1893 with three
directors: George Haydon, mechanical engineer; Frank Harvey Urry,
mechanical engineer; and George Sommerville, gentleman. Their primary
business was the manufacture of mechanical devices, including vending
machines, gas meters, phonographs, polyphones, and slot machines.
||During the years 1896-1899, Haydon & Urry produced as many as four
different model cinematographs:
(1) The firm's first model was apparently one built with a "claw" mechanism. This may have been the first machine they provided to one or two of the showmen to "test the waters".
"This would almost certainly be a "claw" movement projector, as Arthur S. Newman, F.R.P.S., in a "Scientific Paper", published in the "Cinematograph Times" in August, 1934 says of an early projector, invented by Haydon and Urry: "This simple movement was adapted to be used in an ordinary optical lantern. A rotating spindle drove an arm with a ratchet-shaped end, which entering the perforations, moved the film forward on the down stroke and slid over the perforations on the up stroke. This was in 1896." (R.S. Taylor: Showmens' Enterprise as Film Exhibitors: Merry-Go- Round: Vol. IV, No. 3, March 1945: pp 18-19)
(2) The Eragraph 1897 Model
Haydon & Urry's first patent application #3572 (10 Feb 1897) was for a machine fitted with a maltese cross mechanism and was submitted in the names George Haydon and Haydon and Urry, Ltd. This was their first model sold on the open market. The machine was advertised as "The New Kinematograph" in February 1897, but was renamed "The Eragraph" in April 1897. Subsequent advertising indicating that machine functioned both as a camera and a projector (The Era, July 17, 1897).
Note: Early-cinema specialist Deac Rossell believes “The Eragraph” may have owed much of its design to German engineer Max Gliewe. Gliewe began manufacturing a five-sided Maltese action in the spring of 1896 and his company subsequently ordered fifty machines from Haydon & Urry (see Who's Who of Victoria Cinema: Gliewe)
(3) The New Model Eragraph
Haydon and Urry's second patent application #20296 (3 Sept 1897) appears to have been for improvements made to their original model. This application was also submitted in the names George Haydon and Haydon and Urry, Ltd. The company began advertising this “new” version in December 1897. It is possible this model was modified more than once under various patent applications (nos. 1689 and 1690 dated 21 Jan 1898) and advertised as the "1898 Improved Model” in The Magic Lantern Journal in 1898.
(4) The British Eragraph
The firm began advertising “The British Eragraph” in December 1898 - this model having been brought out shortly after patent application #22,903 made 1 Nov 1898 (again, only in the names George Haydon and Haydon and Urry Ltd).
Note: Frank Harvey Urry also applied for a patent (#21,741) in 1898 (separately from Haydon & Urry) for “Improvements in apparatus for exhibiting pictures of objects in motion. Oct. 15th.” (The Era, 22 Oct 1898)
|Owner: Michael Rogge (Holland)
Webpage: Collecting Vintage Film (Movie Cine) Cameras and Projectors
Previous Owners: unknown, purchased from Early Technology, Edinburgh, Scotland
Production/Serial No.: The serial number "47" is stamped between the plates, but is left blank after "Pat No"
Model: likely one of Haydon & Urry's early models (perhaps the Eragraph 1897 Model)
Drive Method/Mechanism: maltese cross
Film accomodation: Edison gauge
Description: Working model. Upper Street name plate. No base. Focusing is by a lens positioned between the plates.
Notes: Appears to be similar to the model held by The National Museum of Photography, Film and Television, Bradford, Yorkshire.
Owner: Eric Lange, Lobster Films, 13, rue Lacharrière, 75011 Paris
Previous Owners: once owned by the family of the late George Williams (a former sign writer and travelling exhibitor)
Production/Serial No.: 155
Model: certainly one of Haydon & Urry's earlier models (perhaps the New Model Eragraph)
Drive Method / Mechanism: 5-sided Maltese cross
Film accommodation: Edison gauge
Description: Excellent condition. Upper Street name plate. Wooden base stamped W. B. Ltd. Top of back plate is stamped W.B. B. Ltd.
Notes: Eric's machine is thought to be the best surviving example of an Eragraph (no pieces missing and fully functional). It was sold with eleven films (seven English titles, four French): Military Parade / Horse Guards / Drum Major, No. 440; River Fisherman, No. 1002; Comic Courting Couples and Park Bench (Haydon & Urry's "Kissing Duet" and "On the Benches in the Park"??) ; Boys Swimming from Dingy, No. 1045; Horseguards Parade; Cart and Horse Mishap; Street Dancers and Barrel Organ; Danse Tyrolienne (Lumiere); Dublin: Pompiers. Un Incendie I (Lumiere); Negres Aschantis: Danse Du Sabre II (Lumiere) and Les Sables D'olonne: Bal des Sablaises (Lumiere).
The National Museum of Photography, Film and Television (Bradford, Yorkshire)
Previous Owners: Part of the Science Museum Collection; formerly owned by Mr. J. Henderson, Stockton-on-Tees, 1948
Model: likely of the earlier models (perhaps the Eragraph 1897 Model)
Drive Method/Mechanism: Maltese Cross
Film accommodation: Edison gauge
Description: Upper Street name plate. Consists of mechanism only.
Barnes Brothers (formerly housed at the Museum of Cinematography, St Ives, Cornwall)
Previous Owners: Unknown
Drive Method/Mechanism: Maltese cross
Film accommodation: 35 mm film, Edison gauge
"The Apparatus consists of two parallel brass plates 1/8 in. and 1/4 in. thick, which are connected at their corners by steel rods with brass sleeves, so that they stand about 4 inches apart. The thicker back plate carries the film mechanism, comprising a Maltese cross and cam for imparting the intermittent movement to the sprocket wheel which is situated below the picture aperture. The roll of film is suspended between two uprights at the top, and issues freely from the bottom of the instrument as no take up spool is provided. The objective lens is mounted between the two brass plates and travels backwards and forwards on a screw for focussing, a suitable aperture being provided in the front plate to allow the image to pass. The shutter is situated immediately behind this aperture and is revolved by means of a pinion geared to the main drive and supported at its other end by a bearing in the front plate. The machine, together with its lantern, are mounted on a wooden baseboard, the forward section of which slides back and forth so that the distance between the two units can be varied to suit the requirements of the illuminant." (Barnes, J. (1996) The Beginnings of the Cinema in England, Vol. 2)
La Cinémathèque Française (51, rue de Bercy, 75012 Paris)
Previous Owners: W. Day
Production/Serial No.: 1
Model: appears to be one of Haydon & Urry's later models
Drive Method/Mechanism: 5-sided Maltese cross
Film accommodation: 35 mm film, Edison gauge
Description: Upper Street name plate. Crank on right hand side; working model; 34 cm H, 45 cm L, 32 cm W, Lens 4 cm. Wooden base.
Notes: This machine appears to be slightly different from the earlier models. The production number "No. 1" on the engraved plate suggests it was the first in a new series.
Christies (sale item)
Previous Owners: unknown
Model: appears to be one of the later models (perhaps the "British Eragraph" advertised in December 1898)
Drive Method/Mechanism: Maltese cross
Film accommodation: 35 mm film
Description: "Brass hand-cranked mechanism, intermittent movement with maltese cross, top-mounted film holder, front plate with lens and maker's plate, the whole mounted on a rack-over assembly and attached to a wooden base board with a painted steel electric light lantern "
Notes: This is likely the firm's last model. It is of a more refined and robust construction than previous models. There is reduced spacing between the plates (better rigidity) and the lens is mounted on the front plate rather than between the two chassis plates.
The Monte Brothers
James, George and Dick Monte were three brothers employed at Haydon & Urry during the years the company was involved in supplying the cinema trade. James Monte was apparently working for the firm in 1896 when George Haydon began developing a machine to project animated photographs. George and Dick Monte were subsequently hired to act as cinematograph operators and to assist James in making films (all three had a background in professional photography). Before long, the Monte brothers had become the firm's main link with the travelling showmen, demonstrating and supplying the equipment, and helping the showmen to get started exhibiting pictures in their fairground shows.
James and Dick also produced some of the films supplied by Haydon & Urry, including the Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee Procession (June 1897) and Lady Overboard (in which Dick claimed he played the part of the "Lady") [see The Monte Williams Showmen].
"I then started travelling showmen who used the usual model of Fantascope, but we persuaded one to try this machine out in the St. George’s Hall. He was the first showman to have a cinema machine. We gave him pictures we had taken and he started projection in 1896. He went through the winter and found the machine a very good show." (James Monte a.k.a. Monty Williams) at a meeting of the British Kinematograph Society in London: Bromhead, Col. A.C. (1933) Reminiscences of the British Film Industry: in Proceedings of the British Kinematograph Society: p 22. London)
"Another successful cinematographer was Mr. Monti Williams [James Monte], who on Westminster Bridge, with his Eragraph camera made by Haydon and Urry, broke all records for the Diamond Jubilee picture of Queen Victoria by showing it on the same night at the London Pavilion Music Hall for Mr. Felix Glenister, who had an Eragraph projector installed under the direction of Signor Polverina and Mr. Fred Griffiths. This film was developed and printed at Islington, and the print was dried on top of a horse-cab on its journey to the theatre. So great was their enthusiasm that the audience with one accord rose and sang "God Save the Queen," and insisted on the film being shown once again. This was not so simple a task as it is now; the film, after showing, was allowed to drop loosely into a basket as there were then no restrictions from the London County Council. . . . A second print of this film was also made and wound upon a drying fame, and while still wet was dispatched by train to Liverpool, where, upon its arrival, it was shown by Mrs. Reynolds at her than famous Waxworks Show in Lime Street at 4 o'clock on the following morning before a large audience, which had waited all night, and after the first screening went delirious with amazement and delight. The film had to be shown four times." (Filming the Diamond Jubilee: The Times, 9 Apr 1935, p 19)
“We were all professional photographers, which is how we came to be attached to the firm of Haydon and Urry, Ltd., of Islington. They were very clever scientific engineers but knew nothing about the photographic side. Between us we produced not only films but machines to show them and we really supplied 100 per cent of the showmen. . . . Thank goodness the new Haydon and Urry machine and a free show just saved the position. Off to the Fairs we went – terrific business everywhere!" (Letter written by Dick Monte (under the trade name Randall Williams) in Low, R. & Manvell, R (1948): The History of British Film: 1896-1906: Vol. 1: Reprinted 1973, Geo. Allen: Appendices: pp 118-119)
“In the view of “The Miracle of the Movies” in your issue of January 10th, some of the pioneers of cinema shows on the fair grounds are mentioned. My brothers and myself were certainly among the first in the trade, we supplied machines, films and equipment to practically all of the showmen at that time, and gave them the idea of showing to the public. We were then associated with the firm of Haydon & Urry, of Islington. We booked our own films and supplied the trade. My two brothers James and George have passed on, but I am still about and have traded for 50 years as Randall Williams (Richard Monte by birth). I also had the pleasure of travelling my own shows and machines, besides having several halls . . . ” (World’s Fair, Jan 31, 1948, p. 6)
The Monte brothers left Haydon & Urry shortly before the company gave up its pursuits in the cinematography trade. George left in 1897 to manage, first, for showman Jack Cooper in Sunderland, and then for George Green in Scotland. James left in November 1898 to travel to Australia. Dick left in January 1899 when he married Carrie Williams and he and Carrie took over the “Randall Williams Cinematograph Show”.
One of the first showmen supplied with a Haydon & Urry projector was ghost show proprietor Randall Williams. Randall first exhibited films at Hull Fair in October 1896 where he advertised “Living Pictures” using the “Only Electroscope in the World” (Hull Daily Mail, 13 Oct 1896). His next showing was at the World’s Fair (London) in December 1896, followed by King's Lynn Mart in February 1897. There is no record of the projector used in Randall’s shows, but it is likely the one he used at King's Lynn was supplied by Haydon & Urry. The company had applied for a patent for their projector on February 10, 1897, just as the World's Fair was coming to a close, and just five days prior to the opening of Randall’s show at King's Lynn at the start of the fairground season. Randall already knew James Monte (one of the firm's employees) at that time, having met him in 1895 when James had been the assistant secretary of the Showmen's Annual Supper (held in Islington at the end of the World's Fair) and Randall had been the Chairman. (The Era, 12 Jan 1895).
"I have been able to ascertain that the very first showman to exhibit the cinematograph in a portable booth was Randall Williams, who purchased a machine from Messrs. Hayden and Urry. (R.S. Taylor: Showmens' Enterprise as Film Exhibitors: Merry-Go-Round: Vol. IV, No. 3, March 1945: pp 18-19)
"Their chief associate and exhibitor was Randall Williams. The Eragraph was a strong and reliable machine, popular with many travelling showmen." (Denis Gifford in Who's Who of Victorian Cinema)
“This firm was situated at 353 Upper Street and achieved considerable success with its Eragraph projector. It also produced its own films. . . It is just possible that it supplied the machine used by old Randall Williams at the Royal Agricultural Hall, in which case this would have been the first of its Eragraph projectors, which did not appear on the open market, however, until the following year.” (John Barnes, The Beginnings of Cinema in England, Vol. 2: 1897: pp 166-168.)
Randall Williams was probably Haydon & Urry's best known associates, but the Eragraph proved popular with other showmen because it was a reliable and sturdy machine (an essential for travelling exhibitors):
Reynolds Exhibition: Alfred Reynolds, the proprietor of a waxworks and variety exhibition located at 12 Lime Street, Liverpool was using an Eragraph in 1897:
“Royal Jubilee Procession. Reproduction by Animated Photography of the great event - the Progress of Her Majesty the Queen to St. Paul’s. . . Reynolds’s Exhibition”. (Liverpool Courier, 30 June 1897; Issue No. 13,115).
“Holiday Attractions at Reynolds’s – The programme for the holiday season at this ever popular place of amusement is now complete, and Mr. Reynolds offers his patrons a full and varied list of attractions. The Royal Jubilee procession (the photographs of which, with Mr. Reynolds’ well-known enterprise, were shown by the cinematograph within twenty-four hours after the event had taken place) continues to excite admiration and surprise as the various interesting and imposing features of the pageant pass before the audience. A novel and striking innovation has been introduced by the colouring of the cinematograph films, reproducing the tinted effects of the limelight on the dress and figures of the dancers.” (Liverpool Daily Post, 27 July 1897, p 7).
Biddall brought a complete
from Haydon and Urry in 1897 and brought George Monte back to Castle
in Scotland to operate it. (Fairground Strollers
another showman who used a Haydon & Urry projector supplied
by James Monte (The
Travelling Cinematograph Show, p55)
Scard was supplied with an Eragraph by Haydon &
Urry employee Dick Monte:
"Showman Harry Scard (1860-1939) of "Wadbrook and Scard" fame was one of the first to show animated pictures in South Wales using a Haydon and Urry projector". (Merry-Go-Round: Vol. IV, No. 6, June 1945).
"When a projector was acquired from Haydon and Urry in 1897 films were introduced in the show at Bloxwich Wakes". (The Travelling Cinematograph Show: Wadbrook & Scard, p165)
a Yorkshire showman who
travelled a small bioscope show in the English north-east, is believed
to have been equipped with a Haydon & Urry projector supplied by
George Monte (who left
Haydon & Urry to manage Cooper's bioscope in 1898-1899). One
films shown in Cooper's bioscope was Haydon & Urry's film "The
Bride's First Night".
was one of the travelling
exhibiting in 1898 (The
Crighton owned an
Era, 3, Feb 1900) and at one time called his show "Crighton's
Travelling Cinematograph Show, p 86)
Lewis used a Haydon & Urry projector as part of his
mechanical exhibition "China" (The Era,
Eragraph (The Era, June
Haydon & Urry Time Line
Urry, 23, born Isle of Wight, farm labourer (census, Isle of White,
George Haydon, 30, born Islington, manager to electrical engineer (census, Islington, 1891)
George Sommerville, 33, born Birmingham, clerk, accounts (census, St. Pancras, 1891)
The firm of Haydon and Urry Limited (Haydon & Urey) was formed in 1893 with three directors: George Haydon, mechanical engineer; Frank Harvey Urry, mechanical engineer, and George Sommerville, gentleman.
Haydon & Urry, engineers, located 31 Furnival St. EC (Post Office London Directory, 1894-1895)
The Memorandum of Association dated 1 July 1895 established the company's mandate "to carry on business as mechanical engineers and manufacturers of machines and machinery, and to buy, sell, manipulate, import, and deal in machines, machinery, and commodities of all kinds". The three Directors were George Haydon (mechanical engineer), Frank Harvey Urry (mechanical engineer), and George Sommerville (gentleman). [National Archives: Board of Trade Record BT31/6284/44487]
& Urry Ltd., 34 Gray's Inn Road earlier in the year (Post Office Commercial
October: the firm leased new premises at 353 Upper Street, Islington. Their offices and showroom remained at that location until the company was sold in 1900:
“WANTED KNOWN . . . Haydon and Urry (Limited) on account of the Business having outgrown the Accommodation afforded by their Premises in Gray’s-inn-road, have acquired the lease of No. 353, Upper-Street, Islington, N (opposite Agricultural Hall)". (The Era, 17 Oct 1896)
||“Haydon & Urry Ltd, automatic delivery machine maker &
mechanical engineers, 353 Upper Street, Islington” (Post Office London Directory, 1897)
February: Application for cinematograph patent; application #3572, dated February 10, 1897, submitted in the names George Haydon and Haydon and Urry, Ltd. (Barnes, J. (1996) The Beginning of the Cinema in England; Vol. 2, p 66)
February: Haydon and Urry’s first advertisement for their cinematograph appeared in The Era (the showmen’s trade paper):
“THE NEW KINEMATOGRAPH (Patented). At last a Perfect Machine. At last a Practical Apparatus. A challenge to the World. We are prepared to compare Shows with any machine on the Market, no matter by what maker or at what price. Working perfectly with or without Shutter. No vibration. No flickering. No tearing of films. No trouble to manipulate Machine or Light. . . . The only Apparatus showing absolutely perfect Pictures without Electric or Limelight. Our new Illuminant and Generator, eclipsing both for and cheapness, convenience, portability, and safety, supplied with Apparatus, so that Purchasers are ready to show at Five Minutes Notice” . . . (The Era, 20 Feb 1897; Issue 3048)
February: A catalogue from the 1897 Dunfermline Scientific and Industrial Exhibition (a travelling exhibition held at Dunfermline Feb 25 to Mar 20, 1897) listed two exhibitors of cinema photography - Herbert Crouch of Glasgow (a wax works proprietor) and "Professor Haydone" of London:
Exhibitor #34 - Professor Haydone, London: Kinematograph - Living Photographs. The most scientific and matured result of photography. (Dunfermline Press, 27 March 1897)
"Professor Haydone's kinematograph, which makes portraits dance about and engage in the general rush of life with as much activity as if the forms were flesh and blood is a great success" (Dunfermline Journal, 6 March 1897)
"The Eragraph has been Awarded Silver Medal and Diploma at Dunfermline Scientific Exhibition, 1897 (The Era, April 24, 1897)
March: advertising “The Latest Kinematograph (Patented) The only machine that carries with it a written guarantee from the Makers that it will not tear films. Can others do as much? Absolutely no flicker whether used with or without Shutter. The only machine that will give satisfaction with Acetylene Gas if used with our Patent Generator and Burner. Films can be inserted and started working with Twelve Seconds. . . . We will supply a complete Kinematograph, Lens, Lantern, One Film, Acetylene Generator, our patent Burner for same, and 8ft. Fold-Up Opaque Screen. Everything ready for Working for £36 net. . . . The Kinematograph can be attached to Purchaser’s Lantern if required, and can be worked with Lime or Electric Light. Burners, Saturators, Arc Lamps, and all Fittings for this supplied. Having completed our Arrangements we are now open to accept Engagements to exhibit Animated Photographs and send skilled operators with Machines and suitable selections from our enormous Stock of Films to any Part of the United Kingdom. We have been catering to Showmen and Entertainers for many years and we know exactly what they Want. . . . Haydon and Urry, Limited . . . Telegrams “Showmen, London.” (The Era, 6 March 1897; Issue 3050)
March: advertising “The New Kinematograph (Patented) . . . . We are now arranging Engagements for exhibiting Animated Photographs, and are sending out Skilled Operators with Machines and Selections from our enormous Stock of specially selected Films to all parts of the United Kingdom. . . . Messrs. Haydon and Urry, Limited, beg to give notice that, after a large experience of every accredited Machine on the market, and exhaustive investigation, their Machine has been adopted by the Scientific Exhibits, Limited, 445, Strand, W.C. who have been appointed Sole Licensees, and that this Machine can only be obtained from that company and the Manufacturers . . “ (The Era, 13 Mar 1897; Issue 3051)
April: advertising "The New Kinematographe. . . Now showing at over Thirty Theatres and Halls . . . We are now Open to take Films of any Special Subject desired. We are also completing our Film Production Plant and shall shortly be able to supply English Subjects at prices hitherto unheard of (The Era, 3 Apr 1897; Issue 3054)
April: Haydon and Urry renamed their cinematograph 'The Eragraph':
“The Eragraph. The Animated Picture Machine of the Age 1897 Model. Constructed by Haydon and Urry, Limited, the Patentees. (The Era, 24 Apr 1897; Issue 3057)
May: Haydon & Urry were producing their own films by April 1897, and in May 1897, they opened a film production studio on 20-22 Church Street (adjacent to their offices on Upper Street):
“Important Notice to Film Buyers. We have just completed an Extensive and Up-to–Date Plant for producing Films, and have great pleasure in informing our numerous customers that in the short space of Fourteen Days we shall be able to supply them with Exclusive English Subjects at about One-half the Price now asked for films. These subjects have been taken by our own Staff of Operators and are of the most Attractive Animated Scenes calculated to enlist the warmest approval of the British Public, of the highest class of Workmanship and Definition, of accurate Edison gauge, and the Emulsion will not crack or pull off. . . . N.B. We are now booking Orders for Films of the Jubilee Festivities. Order Early. (The Era, 1 May 1897; Issue 3058)
June: Haydon and Urry operators filmed “The Derby” on June 2nd. It was the first film known to have been produced by the firm.
June : advertising "The Eragraph (1897 Model) is the Latest and Most Scientific Apparatus for the Projection of Animated Photographs" . . . "The only animated picture machine awarded a Silver Medal in Great Britain" . . . Films. Films. Films. The 1897 Derby, Now Ready. Films of the above race. 75ft of Sharpe First-Class Photos for £3 10s. (The Era, June 5, 1897; Issue 3063)
June: Haydon and Urry operators (James and Dick Monte) filmed Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee Procession on June 22nd. Their films appear to have been the first footage of the event shown to the public:
“Jubilee Procession. Grand Series of Six Films. Taken by our new Eragraph. The Best and Sharpest Pictures ever produced, including Her Majesty the Queen. Price £4 each. Edison Gauge . . . These films are strictly copyright. . . . Sole Proprietors and Manufacturers of the Eragraph.” (The Era, 26 Jun 1897; Issue 3066)
"At the London Pavilion, Piccadilly Circus, Signor Polverini was exhibiting a series of Jubilee films, which we have reason to believe, were supplied by Haydon and Urry Ltd., who also, it is understood, were the suppliers of the projector used during the performances. This Islington firm had recently been equipped with extensive facilities for producing their own films. Six episodes of the procession were offered for sale at £4 each, and each film was 75 ft in length." (Barnes, J: The Beginnings of The Cinema in England: Vol 2, p 195)
July: A Notice of Change in the Situation of the Registered Office, dated 2 July 1897 indicated the company had moved its office and showrooms to 353 Upper Street, Islington. [National Archives: Board of Trade Record BT31/6284/44487]
July: Advertising for the Eragraph indicated the device was capable of both filming and projecting films.
“Films. Films. Films. Jubilee Procession. . . .Taken by our new Eragraph. The Best and Sharpest Pictures ever produced, including Her Majesty the Queen." (The Era, 3 July 1897; Issue 3067)
July: "At Henley this week some beautiful pictures of the contests have been taken by Messrs. Haydon and Urry's Eragraph. An unique position on the umpire's boat has enabled the operator to get some splendid results. These were shown at the London Pavilion for the first time last night." (Music Hall Gossip: The Era, 17 July 1897, Issue 3069)
September: “Theatrical Patents. 20,296. Hayden, Urry, Limited, and George Hayden, 70 Chancery-lane, London. Improvements in and relating to apparatus for obtaining and displaying kinematographic or zoetorophic pictures. Sept, 3 rd., 1897.” (The Era, 11 Sept 1897; Issue 3077).
September: “Royal Institution Fine Arts, 175 Sauchiehall Street. Do not miss seeing The Animated Pictures by The Improved Kinematograph. Queen’s Diamond Jubilee Procession (15,000 Pictures taken, Seventeen Minutes to Pass); Stirring Spanish Bull Fight, Champion High Diving Feats, &c., &c. (The Glasgow Herald, 15 Sept 1897)
December: advertising “New Model Eragraph. . . H. & U. are now prepared to Supply Their Exclusive and Up-To-Date Subjects on a Specially Thick and Durable Film, expressly produced for Hard Wear and manufactured solely for them . . . (The Era, 4 Dec 1897; Issue 3089)
December: Advertising indicated "The Eragraph" had won a "Gold Medal at the 1897 Wigan Trades and Arts Exhibition" (The Era, 11 Dec 1897; Issue 3090). Although there was no mention of their cinematograph, a report in the local newspaper confirms that the firm did in fact exhibit at Wigan in 1897:
"The phonograph belonging to Messrs. Haydon and Urry is a first rate treat to its patrons, giving the latest novelties in musical, comic, vocal, and elocutionary effect, and we had the pleasure of listening to some of the latest London humorous songs; and the kitchen maid can find a friend in "Tut tut." (Wigan Examiner, Nov 30, 1897, p 8. Details provided by Wigan Library Information Services).
December: Haydon & Urry was the only firm known to have filmed the Funeral Procession of actor William Terriss who was stabbed by another actor on December 16, 1897. He was buried at Brompton Cemetery, December 21, 1897.
Films supplied by Haydon & Urry: 1897
The 1897 Derby (June 2) (The Era, June 5, 1897; Issue 3063) (75 ft)
Jubilee Procession (22 June) (The Era, 26 June 1897; Issue 3066) (6 films, each 75 ft)
Henley Regatta. (14 July) (each 75ft) Scenes at Henley taken at the Umpire’s landing stage (1) The Grand Challenge Cup. Exciting finish between the Leander and Dutch (Eight Oar Boats) (2) Ladies Challenge Plate . . the Emanuel Boat (Cambridge) and Christ Church (Oxford) (3) Review of the Boats . . (4) Boats passing under Henley Bridge going to the Regatta (5) The New College (Oxford crew) landing at the Boathouse at Landing Stage . . . (6) Arrival of the Eton Crew at the Landing-stage . . . (The Era, 17 July 1897, Issue 3069)
Cornish Coast and Sea (August) (The Era, 21 Aug 1897, p 16: mentioned in Barnes, J. (1996) The Beginning of the Cinema in England, Vol. 2, 1897, p 225)
Alexander Park Racecourse and Paddock (19 June) (The Era, 21 Aug 1897, p 16: mentioned in Barnes, J. (1996) The Beginning of the Cinema in England, Vol. 2, 1897, p 225)
Funeral Procession of the Late Mr. William Terriss (21 Dec) (The Era, 1 Jan 1898, p 36; Issue 3093) (75 ft)
The King on his Yacht at Cowes" (Heard, M, contributor: Randall Williams: Who's Who of Victorian Cinema:: British Film Institute: pp 152-153) (see Footnote #2)
||“Haydon & Urry Ltd, automatic delivery machine maker &
mechanical engineers, cinematograph machine & film manufacture 353
Upper Street, Islington (London Post
Office Directory, 1898)
January: advertising “New Model Eragraph is now ready. This apparatus has many improvements upon last season's model . . . From facts which have come to our knowledge we find it necessary to inform the public that our Only Business Address in London is as above [353 Upper St] and that All Apparatus Sold by us is of Our Own Manufacture and is stamped with our Name . . . The Late Mr. William Terriss. We have succeeded in taking a good Cinematograph film of the Funeral Procession of this lamented actor passing from hearse to the grave, embracing a large number of his personal and professional friends. We are now Printing a Limited Number of Copies. . . . Manufacturers and Patentees of “The Eragraph” . . . The Eragraph, now Showing at Palace, Nottingham; Whitehaven Exhibition; World's Fair, Islington" . . . (The Era, 1 Jan 1898; Issue 3093)
January: "THEATRICAL PATENTS: - 1689. George Haydon, and Haydon and Urry Limited, 353 Upper-street, Islington, London. Detached film carrier, for use with cinematographic and the like apparatus. Jan. 21. - 1,690. George Haydon, and Haydon and Urry Limited, 353 Upper-street, Islington. Improvement in apparatus for taking and projecting Zeotrophic or Cinematographic pictures. Jan. 21. (The Era, Jan 29, 1898; Issue 3097)
January: advertising "The Eragraph 1898 Model . . . . . used with unqualified success at Victorian Era Exhibition (all Last Season); Imperial Institute (all last season); London Pavilion (Six Months); Royal Aquarium; Empire, Glasgow; Palace, Nottingham; Royal, Colchester; Empire, Sheffield and other Theatres and Halls too numerous to Particularize . . N.B. Fully test Film of our own Manufacture on East base, exclusive and up-to-date subjects from 30s. each . . . (The Era, 29 1898; Issue 3097)
Note: Haydon & Urry's claim that the Eragraph was used with "unqualified success at Victoria Era Exhibition all last season" was no doubt a reference to showman Randall Williams's show. Randall exhibited "Professor Pepper's Ghost" and animated photographs at the Exhibition the entire summer of 1897.
January: Haydon and Urry representatives attended the Showmen’s Fifth Annual Supper at the Agricultural Hall (Randall Williams presided). (The Showmen’s Supper: The Era, 29 Jan 1898; Issue 3097)
April: There were a number of break-ins at Haydon & Urry, resulting, in at least one instance, a number of films and some equipment being stolen. The results of the Court hearing were reported in The Era:
“On Tuesday, at the London County Sessions, William Henry Smith, twenty-four, labourer, Frank Leslie, twenty-two, clerk, and Arthur Roberts, twenty-one farrier, were charged upon indictment with breaking and entering the shop of Haydon and Urry, Limited, Cinematograph Manufacturers and experimental engineers, of 353 Upper-Street, Islington, N, and stealing eighty-five cinematograph films of various subjects, thirteen projecting lenses, a typewriter, a cycle, and a magic lantern valued at £200. Mr. Kershaw prosecuted. Mr. Watt defended Smith. The premises were entered into for the fourth time in a few months in February last, and the burglars, besides carrying off a great deal of property, damaged many mechanical figures to the extent of £50. The accused men were subsequently arrested, and it was proved that they had dealt with articles stolen from the prosecutor’s place, but the jury acquitted all the prisoners. The Chairman (to the prisoners) – Be careful in future. If the jury had known all that I do the verdict might have been different. (Theatrical Gossip, The Era, 9 Apr 1898; Issue 3107)
April: advertising “Films. Films. Films. . . . Additional subjects taken by Haydon and Urry’s Eragraph . . . . (The Era, 30 April 1898; Issue 3110)
October: “Theatrical Patents . . . 21, 741. Frank Harvey Urry, 61 Frobisher-road, Hornsey, London. Improvements in apparatus for exhibiting pictures of objects in motion. Oct. 15th. (The Era, 22 Oct 1898; Issue 3135)
November: “Theatrical Patents . . 22,903. George Haydon and Haydon and Urry Limited, Upper-street, Islington, London. Improvements in or in connection with Kinematographe and the like apparatus (The Era, 12 Nov 1898; Issue 3138)
November: Haydon and Urry’s letterhead (letter dated 21 Oct 1898, re Brewers, Malsters and Co. Exhibition, held Royal Agricultural Hall, Islington):
Haydon & Urry, Limited, Patentees and Manufacturers of the "ERAGRAPH," The Animated Picture Machine of the Era. Photographers and Cinematograph Film Makers. Manufacturers of every description of Automatic (Coin Freed) Machines, Working Models, &c., Office and Show Rooms 353 Upper Street, Islington, Opposite the Agricultural Hall, London, N.
December 1898 saw the last of the films advertised by Haydon & Urry credited to their own operators or copyright (which may have been due in part to James Monte leaving the firm at the end of November 1898):
“The British Eragraph. Write at once for particulars of Our New Patent Safety Automatic Shutter the only Perfect Protection against Fire. . . Can be fitted to any machine. . . Films, Comic. Films. Original. Films, Select. Our New List is now ready . . All our own Copyright and Manufacturer, including the most successful films of the Season. The New BRIDE'S FIRST NIGHT and TWELVE MONTHS AFTER . . . (The Era, 24 Dec 1898; Issue 3144)
"The Eragraph 1898 Improved Model” (advertisment in Magic Lantern Journal Annual 1898-99)
“The Showmen’s Universal Provider” (advertisement for the Eragraph: The Showmen's Year Book
Films supplied by Haydon & Urry, 1898
Sunderland Football Team (Semi-Final). (March) (The Era, 26 March 1898, p 27d; Issue 3110) (75 ft)
The Grand National (26 March) (75 ft) “Ran in a snowstorm. Marvelous effect”. (The Era, 2 Apr 1898, p 31d; Issue 3106)
B.29. Metropolitan Handicap, Alexander Park, 1898 (9 April) “An exceptionally interesting racing film, the start and finish being at the same point, and both being included in the one film.” (The Era, 30 Apr 1898, p 27b; Issue 3110)
B.30. Trick Bicyclists (April) “Amusing and clever display of Burlesque Riding by the Brothers Henry, the well-known American riders.” (The Era, 30 Apr 1898, p 27b; Issue 3110)
B.31. Amateur Cycle Race (Unpaced) (April) The final heat (Gamage Cycling and A.C. Tournament). “A Capital race, closely contested, Ingram winning by half a length.” (The Era, 30 Apr 1898, p 27b; Issue 3110)
B.32. Grand Parade by the Celebrated Dunlop Pacers (April) “Including six quints, a quad (manned by men of colour), and a tandem. An exceedingly interesting procession” (The Era, 30 Apr 1898, p 27b; Issue 3110)
B.33. Cycle Polo Match - Toledo v Cleveland (April) “Excellent exhibition of this novel and exciting game.” (The Era, 30 Apr 1898, p 27b; Issue 3110)
B.34. Three Miles Cycle Match (April) “A.A. Chase (Safety) v. Grace and Hall (Tandem) “A good race. Chase won by a three parts of a length.” (The Era, 30 Apr 1898, p 27b; Issue 3110)
Bride's First Night (75 ft) (The Era, 24 Dec 1898, p 27b; Issue 3144)
According to John Barnes, Haydon & Urry produced two photoplays in the latter part of 1898: "The Islington firm of Haydon & Urry Ltd, makers of the Eragraph projector, continued to produce a few films. To begin with, these were nearly all topical or news items, but toward the end of the year, following the trend of other film makers, they switched to the production of photoplays. Their first effort in this direction was a film called The Bride's First Night, which was followed by a sequel called Twelve Month's After." (The Beginnings of The Cinema in England: Vol. 3: 1898, p 94)
The Bride's First Night: “A young bride enters a bedroom and begins to undress in a modest fashion. Her husband watches from behind a screen, mopping his face with a handkerchief in an excited fashion. She clambers into bed; he emerges from behind the screen and commences to undress, kneeling beside the bed and covering her face with kisses (69 ft)" (British Film Institute, http://www.bfi.org.uk/nftva/catalogues/film/2253)Twelve Months After (75 ft) (sequel to Bride's First Night) (The Era, 24 Dec 1898, p 27b; Issue 3144)
The Brothers Demonstrate Trick Cycling (Gifford, Denis: The British Film Catalogue: 1895-1985: A Reference Guide)
The Brothers Henry (The British Film Catalogue: 1895-1985: A Reference Guide)
||"Haydon & Urry Ltd., cinematograph machine and film manufacturers,
automatic delivery machine makers and mechanical engineers, 353 Upper
Street, Islington, N -- T.A. "Showmen" (Post Office London Directory, 1899,
April: The last time the name “Eragraph” appeared in Haydon & Urry advertising was in April 1899 (The Era, 22 Apr 1899; Issue 3161). After April, “cinematographs and films” were advertised in the same ads offering “automatic machines of every description”. (The Era, 8 Jul 1899; Issue 3172, etc.).
December: Haydon and Urry were advertising the “Latest War Films” (soldiers leaving for the Transvaal). The films were noted as being “Taken by Special Permission” but there was no mention of the films being produced by Haydon & Urry operators, nor that the films were subject to the company’s own copyright.
Note: The War Films were the last of the films advertised by Haydon & Urry. John Barnes stated (The Beginnings of The Cinema in England: Vol. 5: 1900: pp 102-103) that the company issued two films after the death of Queen Victoria in January 1901, but the firm was no longer in existence at that time.
Films supplied by Haydon & Urry, 1899
The Queen's Arrival Netley (The Era, 1 April 1899, p 2; Issue 3158)
Royal Waxworks (The Era, 1 April 1899, p 2; Issue 3158)
Sensational Fishing Scene (Very Comical) (The Era, 1 April 1899, p 2; Issue 3158) (March 1899) (75 ft)
On the Benches in the Park (The Era, 1 April 1899, p 2; Issue 3158)
Colonel Cody Shooting (The Era, 1 April 1899, p 2; Issue 3158)
The Kissing Duet (The Era, 1 April 1899, p 2; Issue 3158) (couple kissing)
Landing at Low Tide (The Era, 1 April 1899, p 2; Issue 3158)
“Comedy: a boatman carries a fat woman to shore and they both fall in the sea” (Barnes, J., The Beginnings of The Cinema in England: 1900: Vol 5: p 155)
Lady and the Boat: “As a couple in a rowing boat near the seashore, the lady prepares to be carried ashore by a boatman. He drops her in the water; she clambers back in the boat and wrings out her skirt. She is finally carried safely ashore (74 ft). Note: Possibly Landing At Low Tide (Haydon & Urry, 1899). (BFI: http://www.bfi.org.uk/nftva/catalogues/film/2186)
Note: The film “Lady and the Boat” is likely the film “Lady Overboard” (mentioned by M.C.B. Arthur in The House of Williams: Merry Go Round: Vol. 2, No. 8: May 1943: pp 5-12). It is not clear whether or not this is the same film as “Landing at Low Tide”. Dick Monte claimed he played the part of the woman in the film.
Trick on Boatmen (The Era, 1 April 1899, p 2; Issue 3158) (75 ft)
Bathing on Rough Sea (The Era, 1 April 1899, p 2; Issue 3158)
Panorama of the Thames (The Era, 1 April 1899, p 2; Issue 3158)
Impromptu Bath (The Era, 1 April 1899, p 2; Issue 3158)
Arrival of Train (The Era, 1 April 1899, p 2; Issue 3158)
Turn-out of Fire Brigade (The Era, 1 April 1899, p 2; Issue 3158)
Queen’s Carriage - Jubilee Procession (The Era, 1 April 1899, p 2; Issue 3158)
Parade of the Grenadier Guards (The Era, 1 April 1899, p 2; Issue 3158)
The Great Fight. Knockout (The Era, 1 April 1899, p 2; Issue 3158)
Grenadier Guard Leaving for the Transvaal (The Era, 13 Jan 1900; Issue 31996) (filmed in December 1899)
20th Battery Royal Horse Artillery in Khaki Leaving for Transvaal (The Era, 23 Dec 1899, p 28; Issue 3196)
||March: Haydon and Urry was sold and transferred to Automatic Machines
(Haydon & Urry's Patents) Limited pursuant to an agreement dated 14
March 1900. [National Archives: Board of Trade Record BT31/6284/44487]
The new company acquired the stocks of film as well as the patent rights to the Eragraph, but their interests appear to have reverted back to the production and sale of automatic machines, gaming devices and slot machines only (they apparently no longer manufactured or sold the Eragraph).
“Automatic Machines (Haydon and Urry’s Patents), Limited. Application for Shares . . . Many exhibitions where penny-in-the-slot machines are placed require the Kinematograph (living pictures) and the sale and letting out of these both at public places of amusement and at private houses will be another profitable source of revenue.” (The Times, March 19, 1900, p 6)
“Many exhibitions where penny-in-the-slot machines are placed require the Kinematograph (living pictures) and the sale and letting out of these both at public places of amusement and at private houses will be another profitable source of revenue.” (Application for Shares . . . Automatic Machines (Haydon and Urry’s Patents), Limited: The Times, March 19, 1900, p 6)
November: Advertisment “Voluntary Winding-Up Notices: Haydon and Urry Limited (the business and undertakings of the Company having been sold to the Automatic Machines) Haydon and Urry Patents, Ltd. (The Era, 10 Nov 1900; Issue 16497)
||George Haydon, head, 38, Islington, engineer (census, Northampton)
George Sommerville, head, 43, Birmingham, Director Of Public Companies (census, Islington)
Frank Harvey Urry, 37, Isle of Wight, solicitor managing clerk (census, Hornsey)
|Non Cinematographic Interests||Automatic Machines and
According to Nic Costa, author of Automatic Pleasures, the History of the Coin Machine (1988), Haydon and Urry Ltd. were the "leading lights in the field of coin operated machines". They established a number of companies based in North London from the early 1890s and Frank Haydon (the son of George) carried on in the business up until the Second World War. "The final incarnation of Haydon and Urry was as the Licensed Victuallers Automatic Machine Company catering to pubs and hotels. It was in this guise that they launched a machine that was a precursor to the pinball, based on the game of billiards."
The following is a list of a few of the machines designed and produced by Haydon and Urry Ltd. or by Automatic Machines Limited (Frank Haydon):
The Flower Machine (Haydon and Urry bought the rights for the machine from John Price)
The Village Blacksmith (c1895) See The Costa-Haskell Collection
Colonial Shooting Machine - see The Costa-Haskell Collection
Tivoli - one of the most influential gambling games of all time
Pussy Projectile Shooting Machine (marketed in the 1930s by the British American Novelty Co)
Hitler Shooter - a redesigned version of the Pussy Projectile (the object being to shoot out Adolph Hitler's teeth)
Haydon and Urry also manufactured the Autocosmoscope (a stereoviewer displaying still images) which they advertised in The Era as 'the most perfect penny-in-slot seeing machine ever produced'.
Patent: HMSO: Application # 11,792 for Improvements in coin-freed winding mechanisms for use in mechanically-operated instruments, such as polyphones and the like. Haydon & Urey Limited & George Haydon (inventors).
Patent: HMSO: Application #18,429 for improvements in coin freed game apparatus. Automatic Machines (Haydon & Urry's Patents) Limited, George Haydon & Frank Harvey Urry (inventors).
Patent: HMSO: Application # 19,196 for improvements in coinfreed games of skill apparatus. George Haydon & Frank Harvey Urry (inventors).
Patent: HMSO: Application # 22,494 for improvements in or relating to coin-freed games of skill. George Haydon (inventor).
Hayden and Urry (Ltd.) v. Price (The Times, July 31, 1897, p 5)
Grafe [Grasse?] V. Automatic Machines (Haydon & Urry’s Patents) Ltd. (The Times, 6 Dec 1902)
See also PennyMachines.Co.UK: http://www.pennymachines.co.uk/
||1. George Williams (no
relation to Randall Williams) was a sign writer
from King’s Lynn, who, according to the National Fairground Archive,
began exhibiting "living pictures" on the fairgrounds in 1896 (see University of
Sheffield Discovers Earliest Film). George owned the
Eragraph that is now owned by Eric
2. In Who's Who of Victorian Cinema, Mervyn Heard stated that "subjects offered for sale by the company during the Summer of 1897 included The King on his Yacht at Cowes" . It appears that his film was not advertised in The Era where the firm normally submitted its advertising. Heard also suggested the firm was "influenced by their neighbouring competitor George Barron of the Interchangeable Syndicate Co., Upper Street", but that is unlikely. Barron Bros. had been selling Edison projectors from 57, St. John's-road Holloway since September 1896 - but apparently, they did not move their business to Upper Street until March, 1898. An ad in The Era (March 12, 1898) stated "Wanted Known, the Interchangeable Automatic Limited have Removed to New Premises, 327 Upper-street, Islington".
||Barnes, J. (1976) The Beginnings of
the Cinema in England: 1894-1896: Volume 1: Reissued 1998,
University of Exeter Press.
Barnes, J. (1996) The Beginnings of The Cinema in England: 1894-1901: 1897: Volume 2: University of Exeter Press.
Barnes, J. (1988) The Beginnings of The Cinema in England: 1894-1901: 1898: Volume 3: Reissued 1996: University of Exeter Press.
Barnes, J. (1997) The Beginnings of The Cinema in England: 1894-1901: 1899: Volume 4: University of Exeter Press.
Barnes, J. (1997) The Beginnings of The Cinema in England: 1894-1901: 1900: Volume 5: University of Exeter Press.
Bromhead, Col. A.C.: Proceedings of the British Kinematograph Society: Reminiscences of the British Film Industry: London : The Society?, 1933 [Copy provided by British Film Institute]
Chanan, Michael (1980) The Dream that Kicks: The Prehistory and Early Years of Cinema in Britain: 2nd edn., publ 1996: Routledge, London.
Gifford, Denis (1986) The British Film Catalogue, 1895-1985: A Reference Guide: Porter.
Herbert, S. & McKernan, L., eds. (1996) Who's Who of Victorian Cinema: British Film Institute.
Low, R. & Manvell, R: (1948) The History of British Film: 1896-1906: Vol. 1: Reprinted 1973, Geo. Allen: Appendices: Letter from Randall Williams (Richard Monte): pp 118-119
Scrivens, K. & Smith, S., eds. (1999) The Travelling Cinematograph Show: New Era Publications, Tweedale.
Board of Trade Records:
National Archives: BT31/6284/44487: Memorandum of Association: Haydon & Urry Ltd.: 1 July, 1895
National Archives: BTR BT31/6284/44487: Haydon & Urry: Notice of Change in the Situation of the Registered Office: 2 July 1897
National Archives: BTR BT31/6284/44487: Haydon & Urry: Special Resolution: 6 October 1900
Newspapers and Journals (advertisements, etc.)
A sampling of advertisements from The Era, 49 Wellington-street, Strand, W.C. (issued Saturdays).
Newman, Arthur S.: Scientific Paper: Cinematograph Times: August 1934: referenced in: R.S. Taylor: Showmens' Enterprise as Film Exhibitors: Merry-Go-Round: Vol. IV, No. 3, March 1945: pp 18-19
Filming the Diamond Jubilee: A Popular Exhibit, The Times, April 9, 1935, p 19)
Wigan Trades and Arts Exhibition: Wigan Examiner, Nov 30, 1897, p 8: phonograph belonging to Messrs. Haydon and Urry: provided by Wigan Library Information Services
Dunfermline Scientific and Industrial Exhibition (Feb-March 1897); articles from Dunfermline Press, 27 March 1897: Dunfermline Journal, 6 March 1897. Catalogue of Dunfermline Scientific and Industrial Exhibition 1897: Details and copies of newspaper clippings provided by Mr. Chris Neale, Dunfermline Carnegie Library, Abbot Street, Dunfermline KY12 7NL)
The Showmen's Year Book (1898) publ. The United Kingdom and Van Dweller's Protection Assoc., Manchester; Rev. Thomas Horne, editor.
Letter from Finsbury Library re 353 Upper St, Islington (1901)
Letter dated October 21, 1899: from Frank H. Urry, Haydon & Urry Ltd, 353 Upper Street; Islington: to R. Venner, Secretary, Agricultural Hall, Ltd. (Papers of the Theatres and Music Hall Committee relating to the Royal Agricultural Hall 1880-1899 (ref. LCC/MIN/10,886): London Metropolitan Archives, 40 Northampton Road, London EC1R 0HB) [Permission to reproduce]
Details of Eragraph at National Museum of Photography, Film and Television (letter to Randall Williams, Chellaston, December 19, 2005)
Details of the Eragraph at La Cinémathèque Française (Catalogue)
Details of Eragraph owned by Michael Rogge (Holland) (emails) (machine sold by by Early Technology: Monkton House, Old Craighall, Edinburgh Scotland). Photos provided by Early Technology
Email from Michael.Bennett-Levy@virgin.net: permission to use photos of Haydon & Urry projector on Early Technology website: Early Technology, Monkton House, Old Craighall, Edinburgh Scotland.
Details and photos of the Eragraph owned by Eric Lange of Lobster Films , 13, rue Lacharrière, 75011 Paris (emails November 2005). This was the same machine owned by George Williams that was the subject of a letter that Mervyn Heard sent to Peter Williams in 1988.
Letter from Mervyn Heard to Peter Williams (July 7, 1988) re Haydon & Urry, Randall Williams, Richard Monte, and the Eragraph projector owned by the family of George Williams of King’s Lynn. Heard was in possession of the projector at that time and Karen Williams photographed it (copy provided by Randall Williams, Chellaston).
|Credits||The late Dick Monte who spent countless hours doing research on Randall
Williams, Dick Monte, and Haydon & Urry Ltd.
The late Peter Williams (grandson of showman Randall Williams) and his daughter Karen who did a lot of the original research in the 1980s.
Randall Williams (grandson of Randall Williams) a chartered engineer and one time of member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (MIME) who has leant his considerable knowledge about machines, mechanisms, construction methods, etc.
The Monte Williams Showmen
|Copyright Pauline Gashinski, July 1,
2005. Revised July 1, 2008. Contact Travellers UK