The Victoria Cross for Valour has been awarded to 94 Brave Canadians plus an additional 6 who are considered to be Canadians at the time of their award.(see below).
|ALGIE, Wallace Lloyd||1918||Cambrai, France|
|BARKER, William George||1918||Foret de Mormal, France|
|BARRON, Colin Fraser||1917||Passchendaele, Belgium|
|BAZALGETTE, Ian Willoughby||1944||Trossy St. Maximin, France|
|BELLEW, Edward Donald||1915||Kerselaere, Belgium|
|BENT, Philip Eric||1917||Polygon Wood, Belgium|
|BISHOP, William Avery||1917||Cambrai, France|
|BOURKE, Roland Richard Louis||1918||Ostend, Belgium|
|BRERETON, Alexander Picton||1918||Amiens, France|
|BRILLANT, Jean||1918||Meharicourt, France|
|BROWN, Harry||1917||Loos, France|
|CAIRNS, Hugh||1918||Valenciennes, France|
|CAMPBELL, Frederick William||1915||Givenchy, France|
|CLARKE, Leo||1916||Pozieres, France|
|CLARK-KENNEDY, William Hew||1918||Fresnes, France|
|COCKBURN, Hampden Zane Churchill||1900||Komati River, South Africa|
|COMBE, Robert Grierson||1917||Acheville, France|
|COPPINS, Frederick George||1918||Hackett Woods, France|
|COSENS, Aubrey||1945||Mooshof, Germany|
|CROAK, John Bernard||1918||Amiens, France|
|CURRIE, David Vivian||1944||Falaise, France|
|DE WIND, Edmund||1918||Groagie, France|
|DOUGLAS, Campbell Mellis||1867||Little Andaman, India|
|DUNN, Alexander Roberts (*2)||1854||Balaclava, Crimea|
|FISHER, Frederick||1915||St. Julien, Belgium|
|FLOWERDEW, Gordon Muriel||1918||Bois de Moreuil, France|
|FOOTE, John Weir||1942||Dieppe, France|
|GOOD, Herman James||1918||Hangard Wood, France|
|GRAY, Robert Hampton (*4)||1945||Honshu, Japan|
|GREGG, Milton Fowler||1918||Cambrai, France|
|HALL, Frederick William||1915||Ypres, Belgium|
|HALL, William Edward (*3)||1857||Lucknow, India|
|HANNA, Robert Hill||1917||Lens, France|
|HARVEY, Frederick Maurice Watson||1917||Guyencourt, France|
|HOBSON, Frederick||1917||Lens, France|
|HOEY, Charles Ferguson||1944||Ngakyedauk Pass, Burma|
|HOLLAND, Edward James Gibson||1900||Komati River, South Africa|
|HOLMES, Thomas William||1917||Passchendaele, Belgium|
|HONEY, Samuel Lewis||1918||Bourlon Wood, France|
|HORNELL, David Ernest||1944||Faroes, Atlantic|
|KAEBLE, Joseph||1918||Neuville-Vitasse, France|
|KERR, George Fraser||1918||Bourlon Wood, France|
|KERR, John Chipman||1916||Courcelette, France|
|KINROSS, Cecil John||1917||Passchendaele, Belgium|
|KNIGHT, Arthur George||1918||Villers-les-Cagnicourt, France|
|LEARMONTH, Okill Massey||1917||Loos, France|
|LYALL, Graham Thomson||1918||Cambrai, France|
|MacDOWELL, Thain Wendell||1917||Vimy Ridge, France|
|MacGREGOR, John||1918||Cambrai, France|
|MAHONY, John Keefer||1944||River Melfa, Italy|
|McKEAN, George Burdon||1918||Gavrelle Sector, France|
|McKENZIE, Hugh||1917||Meetscheele Spur, Belgium|
|McLEOD, Alan Arnett||1918||Albert, France|
|MERRIFIELD, William||1918||Abancourt, France|
|MERRITT, Charles Cecil Ingersoll||1942||Dieppe, France|
|MILNE, William Johnstone||1917||Thelus, France|
|MINER, Harry Garnet Bedford||1918||Demuin, France|
|MITCHELL, Coulson Norman||1918||Canal de L'Escaut, France|
|MYNARSKI, Andrew Charles||1944||Cambrai, France|
|NUNNEY, Claude Joseph Patrick||1918||Drocourt-Queant Line, France|
|O'KELLY, Christopher Patrick John||1917||Passchendaele, Belgium|
|O'LEARY, Michael||1915||Cuinchy, France|
|O'ROURKE, Michael James||1917||Hill 70, France|
|OSBORN, John Robert||1941||Mount Butler, Hong Kong|
|PATTISON, John George||1917||Vimy Ridge, France|
|PEARKES, George Randolph||1917||Passchendaele, Belgium|
|PECK, Cyrus Wesley||1918||Cagnicourt, France|
|PETERS, Frederick Thornton||1942||Oran, Algeria|
|RAYFIELD, Walter Leigh||1918||Arras, France|
|READE, Herbert Taylor||1857||Delhi, India|
|RICHARDSON, Arthur Herbert Lindsay||1900||Wolwespruit, South Africa|
|RICHARDSON, James Cleland||1916||Somme, France|
|ROBERTSON, James Peter||1917||Passchendaele, Belgium|
|RUTHERFORD, Charles Smith||1918||Monchy, France|
|SCRIMGER, Francis Alexander Caron||1915||St. Julien, Belgium|
|SHANKLAND, Robert||1917||Passchendaele, Belgium|
|SIFTON, Ellis Welwood||1917||Neuville-St.-Vaast, France|
|SMITH, Ernest Alvia “Smokey” (*1)||1944||River Savio, Italy|
|SPALL, Robert||1918||Parvillers, France|
|STRACHAN, Harcus||1917||Masnieres, France|
|TAIT, James Edward||1918||Amiens, France|
|TILSTON, Frederick Albert||1945||Hochwald Forest, Germany|
|TOPHAM, Frederick George||1945||Rhine, Germany|
|TRIQUET, Paul||1943||Casa Berardi, Italy|
|TURNER, Richard Ernest William||1900||Komati River, South Africa|
|WILKINSON, Thomas Orde Lauder||1916||La Boiselle, France|
|YOUNG, John Francis||1918||Dury-Arras Sector, France|
The following 4 Victoria Cross recipients were Canadians, but were serving in Other Army Units at the time of their VC act
|CRUICKSHANK, Robert Edward||1918||Jordan, Palestine||London||British|
|NICKERSON, William Henry Snyder||1900||Wakkerstroom, South Africa||Medical||British|
|RICKETTS, Thomas (*)||1918||Ledeghem, Belgium||Newfoundland||British|
|SINTON, John Alexander||1916||Orah Ruins, Mesopotamia||Medical||Indian|
The following 6 Victoria Cross recipients were serving with the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) in WWI when awarded their VC, but were not Canadian born. They are 'considered' to be Canadians at the time of their VC act
|DINESEN, Thomas||1918||Parvillers, France||Danish||Quebec|
|HUTCHESON, Bellenden||1918||Queant Line, France||American||Medical|
|KONOWAL, Filip||1917||Lens, France||Ukranian||B.C.|
|METCALF, William Henry||1918||Arras, France||American||Canadian Scottish|
|MULLEN, George Harry||1917||Passchendaele, Belgium France||American||PPCLI|
|ZENGEL, Raphael Louis||1918||Warvillers, France||American||Saskatchewan|
Please Visit our Victoria Cross Grave Site Page: Graves of VC Recipients located in Canada
|Ernest Alvia “Smokey” SMITH was the only Canadian VC recipient to be presented with his medal before the award was gazetted. The presentation is reported in the London Times on 20 December 1944 the same day of the gazette notice. The Court Circular dated Buckingham Palace 19 December 1944 states that Smith had the honour of being received by the King the previous evening. The presentation on 18 December 1944 was two days before the gazettal on 20 December 1944. It was the only such early presentation in the Second World War.|
VICTORIA CROSS RECIPIENT KILLED IN CANADA
|Scottish born Robert Gordon McBEATH, was only 19 years old when he was awarded his Victoria Cross in Cambrai, France during the 1917 battle of the Somme, while serving with his Scottish Seaforth Highlanders Regiment. After the war (1921) he came to Canada with his wife, and settled in Vancouver, BC, where he joined the BC Provincial Police, and later the Vancouver City Police. In October 1922, Cst. McBeath was fatally shot while attempting to make a routine arrest. His ashes are buried in Mountain View Crematorium, Vancouver, BC. A Vancouver Police Marine vessel is named the "R.C. McBeath VC" in his honour.|
ONLY VICTORIA CROSS AWARDED FOR BRAVERY ON CANADIAN SOIL
|A Victoria Cross was awarded to 20 year old Pte. Timothy O'HEA, who was a member of the 1st Batallion, Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own). The Irish soldier was serving with the British Army in Danville, Quebec on June 9, 1866, when a railway car containing 2000 pounds of ammunition caught fire. He quickly took charge, opened the locked railcar, and single handedly brought the fire under control. His Victoria Cross was unusual in that it was the ONLY one awarded for bravery within Canada.|
THREE VICTORIA CROSS RECIPIENTS LIVED ON SAME STREET
|Leo CLARKE, Frederick HALL and Robert SHANKLAND all lived on the same street, Pine Street, in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It is believed to be the only street in the world to have three Victoria Cross recipients who lived there. The city of Winnipeg has now renamed the street Valour Road in honour of the three VC recipients. A bronze plaque has been mounted on a street lamp to tell this interesting story.|
(Full citations to these awards are recorded in 1000 Brave Canadians, published by The Unitrade Press):
|Prior to the South African War (4)|
DUNN, Alexander Robert
|The South African (Boer) War (4)|
COCKBURN, Hampden Z.C.
|First World War (70)|
ALGIE, Wallace Lloyd
|LYALL, Graham Thomson|
MacDOWELL, Thain W.
McKEAN, George Burdon
McLEOD, Alan Arnett
METCALF, William Henry
MILNE, William Johnstone
MINER, Harry G.B.
MITCHELL, Coulson N.
MULLIN, George Harry
NUNNEY, Claude J.P.
O'KELLY, Christopher P.J.
O'ROURKE, Michael James
PATTISON, John George
PEARKES, George Randolph
PECK, Cyrus Wesley
RAYFIELD, Walter Leigh
RICHARDSON, James C.
ROBERTSON, James Peter
RUTHERFORD, Charles S.
SCRIMGER, Francis A.C.
SIFTON, Ellis Wellwood
TAIT, James Edward
WILKINSON, Thomas O.L.
ZENGEL, Raphael Louis
|Second World War (16)|
BAZALGETTE, Ian W.
|MYNARSKI, Andrew C.|
OSBORN, John Robert
PETERS, Frederick Thornton
SMITH, Ernest Alvia
TILSTON, Frederick Albert
TOPHAM, Frederick George
Facts about the Victoria Cross
"It is ordained that the Cross shall only be awarded for most conspicuous bravery, or some daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self-sacrifice or extreme devotion to duty in the presence of the enemy."
The Victoria Cross is the highest decoration that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
The VC was instituted by Royal Warrant in 1856 but was made retrospective to the Autumn of 1854 to cover the period of the Crimean War. There have been several amending warrants since then.
The Victoria Cross has been bestowed 1356 times since 1854.
It can only be bestowed for actions "in the presence of the enemy" (although from 1858 to 1881 an amendment allowed for awards "under circumstances of extreme danger". Six awards were made under these conditions).
Each VC is still made by the same London jewelers, Messrs Hancocks from the bronze of Chinese cannons captured from the Russians at the siege of Sebastopol (remaining ingots of which are stored at the Army's Central Ordnance Depot at Donnington).
There is now a requirement for at least three witnesses, who must make sworn written statements as to the exact circumstances of the action involved.
It was not until 1920 that an official amendment was made allowing the VC to be awarded posthumously (after death).
Until 1977 it was the only British decoration (apart from a Mention in Despatches) that could be awarded posthumously.
It is not just a British award, but also a Commonwealth one; it was extended to members of the Colonial Forces in New Zealand and other parts of the Empire in 1867 and to the officers and men of the Indian Army in 1911.
There is no barrier of colour, creed, sex or rank (unlike many military decorations which have different types for officers and other ranks).
It has been estimated that the chance of surviving a Victoria Cross act is only 1-in-10.
The largest number of VCs won in a single day was 24 at the second relief of Lucknow on 16 Nov 1857 during the Indian Mutiny.
Fifteen men, not born British or Commonwealth citizens, have received the VC: six Americans, (including the Unknown Soldier), one Belgian, three Danes, two Germans, one Swede, one Swiss and one Ukrainian.
The ribbon was originally red for the Army and blue for the Royal Navy but when the Royal Air Force was formed in 1918 it was changed to red for all the services.
The top British units for recipients are the Royal Artillery with 51, the Royal Engineers with 41, and then the Royal Army Medical Corps and the Rifle Brigade with 27 each.
Since 1916 miniature VCs have been worn instead of the full-sized medals with evening dress or mess dress.
The Victoria Cross is still awarded only by Royal assent and is presented by the Monarch.
On the front of the VC reads the inscription "For Valour", and the hand engraved details of the recipient on the back (name, rank, number, unit and the date of the action).
Since the end of the Second World War the original VC has been awarded 13 times: four in the Korean War, one in the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation in 1965, four to Australians in the Vietnam War, two during the Falklands War in 1982, one in the Iraq War in 2004, and one in the War in Afghanistan in 2006.
It is worth remembering that many servicemen who merited the Victoria Cross never received it because their brave actions went unnoticed, or the witnesses were killed, or whose self-sacrifice resulted in a lonely death in an unmarked grave. This is true no matter what the nationality of the person and is the reason why the tomb of a nation's unknown warrior usually has the highest gallantry decoration bestowed upon it.
The Victoria Cross for New Zealand has been awarded once, which was earned in 2004 but awarded in 2007.
The Victoria Cross for Australia was established in 1991 as the highest Australian operational gallantry medal. It supersedes the original Victoria Cross, but is physically identical and carries the same award criteria. No Australian VCs have been awarded.
Lesser awards (only in terms of the VC) for meritorious service or gallantry are: the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) and Military Cross (MC) for officers and the Distinguished Conduct Medal (DCM) and the Military Medal (MM) for other ranks. These have been awarded for deeds which earlier might have merited a VC.
May 16, 2008 - Ottawa, Ontario - Prime Minister Stephen Harper and Governor General Michaëlle Jean today unveiled Canada’s newly minted Victoria Cross medal at a formal ceremony at Rideau Hall. All future VC medals awarded to Canadians will be minted in Canada. Though the design is faithful to the original design commissioned by Queen Victoria in 1856, Canada’s Victoria Cross includes a number of small but significant Canadian design and content features. The original inscription, “For Valour,” has been changed to the Latin “Pro Valore,” on Canada’s Victoria Cross. This uses the ancient language employed by our English and French ancestors to express the universal ideal that they shared. Other uniquely Canadian elements include metal from the 1867 Confederation medal, as well as metals from each of Canada’s regions. Canada’s VC can be awarded more than once, but no one has received the award since its creation in 1993. Canada’s Victoria Cross was produced through a collaboration of the Departments of National Defence, Veterans Affairs, and Natural Resources, the Royal Canadian Mint and Rideau Hall.
Canada has also established other medals for acts of courage, bravery and valient service.
VISIT THIS LINK TO VIEW THEM.
Please Visit: Victoria Cross on Wikipedia
This EXCELLENT site covers the history of the Victoria Cross and provides a complete breakdown of every man who won the supreme award for valour. It is well worth a visit.
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