Food Sanitation - HACCP


  1. Discuss HACCP in HRI food preparation.
  2. Discuss critical control points.
  3. Discuss potentially hazardous foods.
  4. Discuss potentially hazardous processes.

Objective 1

When you have completed this objective you will be able to...

Discuss HACCP in HRI food preparation.

HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point and is also referred to as Quality Assurance, Quality Control or QAQC.  The HACCP system was designed for NASA by Pillsbury Foods to address concerns of food-borne illness in astronauts.  Since its inception, HACCP has become the standard for food manufacturing in the United States and elsewhere.  There are very strict guidelines for the development of HACCP programs in Canada.

Few if any HRI food service operations have a formal HACCP plan.  The principles behind it are useful in controlling food-borne illness all the same.  In this module, we will review the control of food preparation sanitation hazards using a HACCP model.

There are 7 steps to HACCP:

  1. Conduct a Hazard Analysis
  2. Identify Critical Control Points
  3. Establish Critical Limits
  4. Establish Monitoring Procedures
  5. Establish Corrective Actions
  6. Establish Verification Procedures
  7. Record Keeping Procedures

HACCP requires the physical plant conforms to GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice), that staff have training in hygiene and HACCP procedures and there is commitment from both management and staff.

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Objective 2

When you have completed this objective you will be able to...

Discuss critical control points.

In developing a HACCP plan, each employee and manager needs to be involved in order to come up with a plan that will work.  A full HACCP plan has 12 parts based on 7 principles as noted in objective 1:

  1. Assemble HACCP team  
  2. Input from all staff is necessary for the plan to be effective. The development team needs to be multidisciplinary with knowledge of the processes, and technology as well as with knowledge of HACCP and food microbiology.
  3. Describe Product  
  4. A complete description of the product including a list of ingredients, packaging and distribution.
  5. Identify intended use  
  6. What is the normal use of the product and who are the target consumers if they are particularly sensitive to illness.
  7. Construct Process flow diagram and plant schematic  
  8. Diagram the physical plant including product and personnel flow.
  9. On-site verification of flow diagram and plant schematic  
  10. Making sure the diagram matches reality.
  11. List hazards associated with each step  (Principle 1)
    1. determine possible food safety hazards (microbial, chemical or physical)
    2. identify preventative measures
  12. Apply HACCP decision tree to determine CCP's   (Principle 2)
    1. a step or procedure in which control can be applied such that a food safety hazard can be prevented or eliminated or reduced to acceptable limits.
    2. NOT the same for all operations
    3. Determine the critical control point for each identified hazard.
  13. Establish critical limits  (Principle 3)
    1. Prescribed tolerances that must be met. For example, the temperature of a fridge must be no higher than 4o Celsius.
  14. Establish monitoring procedures  (Principle 4)
    1. Who is responsible for monitoring what and when. For example, the supervisor on duty will monitor the fridge thermometer temperature every 2 hours.
    2. necessary to ensure the process is under control
    3. examples:
      1. having a chart where fridge and freezer temperatures are recorded every 4 hours
      2. cleaning and sanitizing checklist
      3. cooling and heating time and temperature records
      4. date marking
  15. Establish deviation procedures  (Principle 5)
    1. what action is taken when deviation from critical limits occurs to prevent hazardous food from reaching consumers
    2. determined in advance for each CCP (critical control point).
    3. determine cause of non-compliance
    4. example when fridge temperature is above correct limits, chef or manager is informed and mechanical company is called.
  16. Establish verification procedures  (Principle 6)
    1. How will we know the plan is valid and properly operational. This might include product testing or instrument calibration - is the fridge thermometer accurate?
    2. ensures HACCP plan is adequate
    3. includes reviews of:
      1. HACCP plans
      2. CCP records
      3. critical limits
      4. possibly microbial sampling and analysis
      5. records of verification activities

  17. Establish record keeping/documentation. (Principle 7)
    1. regulation requires documents are kept
      1. hazard analysis
      2. written HACCP plan
      3. documenting and monitoring of CCP, critical limits, verification activities
      4. handling of processing deviations
    2. must be kept 1 to 2 years depending on type of product.

As discussed, a full HACCP plan may well not be found in an HRI operation but the principles are a valuable guide to production.  We will look at the following generic control points as a basis for identifying potential hazards.


Storage - General

Storage Areas

Preparation & Cooking


Choose a product you are familiar with and develop a "mini" HACCP plan.  In doing so:

  1. List all the ingredients used in the product.
  2. Make a flow diagram for the product - what would be done first, second etc.
  3. Identify biological, chemical and physical hazards inherent in the product and process.
  4. Determine what controls would prevent hazards from occurring.

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Objective 3

When you have completed this objective you will be able to...

Discuss potentially hazardous foods.

Potentially Hazardous Foods are:

Examples include:

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Objective 4

When you have completed this objective you will be able to...

Discuss potentially hazardous processes.

Potentially hazardous processes include:

Food Temperature
Refrigerated foods 0 - 4 degrees Celsius
Frozen foods At least - 18 Celsius or colder
Thawing foods In the refrigerator or under cold running water
Food in a steam table heated to an internal temperature of 74 Celsius or higher
Cooling foods to room temp in 2 hours and to 4 Celsius in 4 hours or less but as quickly as possible
Reheating foods to 74 Celsius or above
Cold food on display to 4 Celsius or below

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Review Questions

  • HACCP stands for:
  • What is the best time to be sure products are in good condition?
  • Fridge temperature?

  • Freezer temperature?

  • Raw foods are stored ______ ready to eat foods

  • Cool foods rapidly by __________ or ___________.

  • Cool food to room temperature within _____ hours and to refrigerator temperature within ________ hours.

  • Cold foods on display must be at a temperature of ________

  • Hot food holding requires an internal temperature of _______________

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    Food Sanitation
    Last modified July 2009, Garry Wall
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