Global Diplomacy


Age of Discovery


V1.38 Sep 02, 2002

Copyright 1990-1999, Doug Greening, EMG

Special thanks to Allen Davidson for proofing, editing and rewriting the rules.

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Maps and Areas
  3. Units
  4. Relations
  5. Conflicts
    1. Simple Conflicts
    2. Retreats
    3. Support
      1. Supporting an Attack
      2. Supporting a Defense
    4. Cutting Support
    5. Cutting Convoys
  6. Victory Conditions
  7. Commands
    1. Army Add
    2. Add Corps
    3. Add Fleet
    4. Add Squadron
    5. Call To Arms
    6. Convoy
    7. Declare Ally
    8. Declare Neutral
    9. Declare War
    10. Downgrade Unit
    11. Grant Ally Access
    12. Message
    13. Move
    14. Remove Unit
    15. Support Attack
    16. Support Defence
    17. Spy
    18. Upgrade Unit
    19. Victory Conditions
  8. Report
  9. Command Format

1.0 Introduction

In Global Diplomacy each player guides the destiny of one of the Great Powers of the late nineteenth century: Austria-Hungary, China, England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Ottoman Empire, Russia, Spain-Portugal, and the United States. Through the intricacies of global politics and the wise use of military might each Great Power seeks to extend their influence to other lands.

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2.0 Maps and Areas

The five maps of Global Diplomacy (Africa, Asia, Europe, and North and South America) which encompass the entire globe, are comprised of land, sea, and coastal areas. Each Great Power starts with a number of land and coastal areas and a capital (e.g. area 7-London, capital of England) which is accentuated by a solid diamond. Certain land areas are supply centres where additional military might can be procured. There are two point supply centres (e.g. area 3-Edinburgh), represented by a solid circle, for army and fleet production, and one point supply centres (e.g. area 148-Mexico) represented by a half-shaded circle, for corp and squadron production.

Map Clarification:

While land and coastal areas can be owned by Great Powers, sea areas can only be controlled when the Great Power has a naval unit in the area. Great Powers do not have to be at war with each other to move into a sea area where another Great Power has a naval unit.

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3.0 Units

There are four types of units in Global Diplomacy : armies, corps, fleets and squadrons. Armies (worth 2 unit points) and corps (worth 1 unit point) are land units which move between land and coastal areas. Your own armies and corps can move freely between any of your land and coastal areas provided they are adjacent. Similarly, your armies and corps can move into and capture adjoining neutral areas providing another Great Power does not choose to do the same thing (see section on 5.0 Conflicts to find out what happens if they do). The only other land/coastal areas that you may move through safely are those of your allies provided you obtain their permission. Land units may traverse sea areas by means of naval convoys. Fleets (worth 2 unit points) and squadrons (worth 1 unit point) are naval units which move between adjacent sea and/or coastal areas. Simply put, naval units can move between adjoining sea units, between an adjoining sea and coastal unit or between adjoining coastal units providing both are on the same coastline (e.g. you may move between 90-Siam and 91-Malay States because they are both adjacent to 245- Bay of Bengal but not between 90-Siam and 92-Cochin which requires crossing a land mass).

Each turn, you must have enough supply points to maintain your units: hence a 2 point unit (armies and fleets) costs 2 supply points to maintain and a 1 point unit (corps and squadrons) 1 supply point to maintain. When there are insufficient supply points to maintain all the units, you must (or the computer will) decide which units to discharge. Conversely, when there are more supply points than unit points, new units can be added or 1 point units (corps and squadron) upgraded to 2 point units (armies and fleets) at your own supply centres. Note: You may not remove or downgrade units voluntarily.

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4.0 Relations

At the start of the game each Great Power has a neutral relationship with the other Great Powers. Being neutral with a Great Power means they can't invade your land areas and you can't invade theirs. Also, you cannot support each other's units in combat. On the first turn you can not declare war on another Great Power. Wars and alliances can be declared only from the neutral position. So on the first turn you can only declare an alliance with another Great Power. As the game progresses you may see your alliances and wars shift with suprising speed. Continual expansion is the key to success; thus after an initial period of unhampered expansion, as Great Power's collide, relations will change and wars will break out. It is only during these battles that the Great Powers can capture land/coastal areas from each other.

You may declare war and attack a Great Power on the same turn.

Whenever relations between two Great Powers change, a period of neutrality is required, consequently two Great Powers cannot go from being allies to being at war (or vice versa) without a period of neutrality. Thus both Great Powers must declare the period of neutrality to end the war or form the alliance, but it only takes one to start the war or end the alliance.

While the advantage of remaining neutral is apparent (i.e. you can form an alliance or start a war in only one turn) there are also some advantages to forming alliances. First, it takes time (2 turns) for an ally to turn on and attack you. Second, provided you seek and are granted permission, you can pass freely through each others areas, help each other in defence or support each other in attacks (the merits of support attack/defence are discussed in the next section). Finally, you can call your allies to arms which coerces your ally(s) into joining your campaign. Once called upon, your ally must break any alliance they have with your enemy and declare war on them. If they refuse, your alliance with them is broken and they will suffer a 20% loss in their victory level (which is regained at a rate of 5% per turn). You must break alliances and go to war as fast as possible failure to do so, will be considered a failure to answer the call.

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5.0 Conflicts


Land Areas

Many land areas are assigned to players at the beginning of the game. Each of these areas remain in their possession even when units are not in the area, until some other player takes that area in a conflict. If an attacking player succeeds in moving a unit into an area, that player then becomes the owner of that area. Conflicts over land areas which are already owned can only occur when a state of war exists between the players involved in the battle over the area.

Some areas are not owned by any players, and they are called neutral areas. An area remains neutral until a player has taken it. Whenever only one player moves a unit into a neutral area, it becomes that person's territory. If two or more powers attempt to move into a neutral area at the same time, a conflict occurs. For example, at the beginning of the game, Austria-Hungary has a corps in 41 and Germany has a corps in 29, and Russia has a corps in 45. If any one of these players moves into 42, that player then owns the area. If any two of these, or all three, should try to move into 42, a conflict occurs.

Sea Areas

Sea areas are not owned in the same way as land areas. As soon as a unit leaves a sea area, the area becomes neutral again. That is to say, sea areas are not owned: they are only occupied. Because of this, in sea areas, conflicts can occur even between allies, whenever two or more units attempt to occupy the same area. The conflict is resolved in the same way as a conflict on land.

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5.1 Simple Conflicts

Only one unit (army/squadron, etc.) can occupy an area at any given time. Thus when two Great Powers order a unit into the same area at the same time or when one Great Power orders a unit into an area already occupied by their enemy, a conflict occurs. Two results are possible: either someone is victorious, or the conflict is a tie. The victor, in all cases when there is a victor, is the unit with the highest point value. For example, an army (2 strength points) in 20 attempting to move to 19 would beat a corps (1 strength point) in 32 attempting to move to 19. When a conflict ends in a victory, the victor wins the area in question and the loser must retreat. If, however, the battle is a tie, both forces must retreat. (Note: that if a unit is not moving but staying in the current area it is in and gets attacked, and the battle is a tie, only the attacking unit must retreat, the defending unit remains in its original area) In the case where both retreat, whoever owned that area before the conflict retains possession. If the area was neutral, it remains neutral.

The case is resolved in the same way if the two units are attempting to move to the other unit's area (for example, one player's unit has the order MO 20 19, and the other player's unit has the order MO 19 20). If one unit is larger, the larger unit is victorious, and the smaller must retreat. If they are the same size, they both retreat.

Tip: Units can be in areas owned by another player, if they have been granted access. Those units can stay there without you continuing to grant access, but they cannot move or offer support to any area they can not legally move to. If a declaration of war occurs while that unit is in the area, the area become the possession of the player who owns the unit then in the area. Further, It is possible for conflicts to arise in this situation without war being declared. For example, you own 24, and an ally is in that area because you previously granted access. Perhaps, now, though, you suspect he is betraying you; perhaps you want to betray him--but, whatever the reason, you want to force him out. In this case if you have superior force, you will force the unit to retreat. If the unit has no place to retreat to, it will die. It is peculiar to note, in this situation, that if you are allied or neutral with this player, that he can not support his own unit (since the units will not be able to move into the area, they are not eligible to support the unit).

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5.2 Retreats

When a unit which has tried to move is forced to retreat, it attempts first to retreat to the area from which it moved. For example, a unit at 32 attempting to move to 19, if forced to retreat, would attempt first to retreat back to 32. But that area is sometimes occupied. Someone else may have taken that area, or you may have moved another unit into that area. If that area is occupied, the unit which must retreat will try to move to an area adjacent to BOTH the area it came from AND the area it was trying to go to. The area must be controlled by you (or to an area controlled by an ally, if you have been granted access) or to an adjacent neutral sea area (if it is a squadron or a fleet). Where no such areas are available, the unit is eliminated.

If the unit being forced to retreat did not move that turn, it attempts to retreat to any adjacent "friendly" area, in the same way as in the case above.

In the rare event that two opposing units have only one area into which both may retreat and it is not the starting area of any of the units, both are eliminated. A unit can not retreat to a land or coastal area where a battle has taken place, even if the area is now empty because the battle there caused both units to retreat.

Tip: It is possible to make some unusual moves using the way that retreats work. For example, suppose you had an army at 139 and a fleet at 143, and a squadron at 138. You can not directly move from 139 to 143 and 143 to 139, since the units would simply bounce off each other. But, if you moved 139 138 and 143 139, the unit moving to 138 would be forced to retreat to 143.

Tip: It is also possible that your units can switch places in the following manner. Suppose you had armies in 16 and 14, and attempted the following: MO 16 14 and MO 14 18. If the unit which was trying to get into 18 failed, it would have to retreat. Since 14 would be occupied, it would retreat to 16. Thus, in effect, the units would have switched places.

Tip: It is not possible to downgrade or eliminate units directly (that is, there is no command available which will downgrade units). And, it is important to note, you cannot make illegal moves, such as marching into the sea! The computer just ignores illegal commands altogether. But it is sometimes possible to move a unit in such a way that it has no place to retreat. For example, suppose you had an army at 139 which you no longer needed, and you had squadrons at 138, 143, and 209. If you moved the army from 139 to 138, and the fleet from 209 to 139, the army would have no place to retreat, and would die. It is also worth observing that your units will not engage in "conflicts" among themselves; that is, in this example, the army will not push the squadron out of 138.

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5.3 Support

A unit which is directly adjacent to an area being attacked AND which may move into that area may be used to support an attack or defense either by your own units or an allies units. You may not support an enemy unit. Note that sea units may not be used to support either an attack or defense of an inland area; likewise, a land unit may not be used to support either an attack or defense of a sea area.

5.31 Supporting an Attack

When a unit supports another unit's attack on an area, the unit value of the supporting attack is added to the attack. For example, an English army (2 strength points) at 16 attacks a French army (2 strength points) at 17. A tie would result, unless an adjacent unit supported the attack (for example, an English squadron at 233). In that case, the English would have 3 strength points compared to the French 2 strength points. Note that it is necessary to have one unit move to the area, the other to support the attack. Thus, in this situation, the English orders would be MO 16 17 and SA 233 17. Note too that more than one unit can support an attack, if they are all adjacent to the area being attacked and can move into that area.

Tip: It is important to note that sometimes a lesser force, using support, can overcome a greater force, if the greater force is handled wrongly. For example, suppose England had a fleet at 233 and a fleet at 234, and Germany had a squadron at 235 and a fleet at 61. If England gave the following orders, MO 234 235 and MO 233 234, and Germany gave the following orders, MO 235 234 and SA 61 234, the German squadron at 235 would successfully force both fleets to retreat. The reason for this is that the German forces encounter the unit attempting to go to 235, and have a 3 to 2 advantage. Then the German forces encounter the unit attempting to go to 234, and have a 3 to 2 advantage there also.

5.32 Supporting a Defense

Just as units may be used to support the attack, units adjacent to an area being attacked and which may move into that area may be enlisted to support the defense. When a unit supports the defense of an area, the unit value of the supporting defender is added to the unit value of the unit in that area. For example, in the case above, if the French had a corps at 18, he could issue the order SD 18 17. Then the results would be a tie (3 strength points to 3 strength points), and France would retain possession of 17. Note that a unit must already be in the area in order to add to the defense of that area.

Tip: Only stationary units can have their defence supported. You cannot support defence of a unit which is issued a MO command. Also, it might be helpful to know that issuing reciprocal commands will work here, for example SD 27 28 and SD 28 27. If both areas have 2-point units in them, both areas would have a total of 4 defence points.

Tip: Sometimes one can defend an area by creating a unit in that area (of course, you must have the supply points necessary to build the unit!). A unit which is being created in the current turn cannot move or offer any support. But if that unit is attacked, the normal conflict rules are applied, and a unit newly created unit can be supported by some other unit. For example, the English have an army at 17, and a squadron at 233. The French own 16 but have no one in the area, have a squadron at 221, and have 2 extra supply points. The French could then build an army at 16, and support the army from 233 (The orders would be: AA 16, and SD 221 16. For more information about building units, see sections 7.1 through 7.4).

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5.4 Cutting Support

A unit can also be used to cut the support of other units. There is no separate command to cut the support of another unit. Instead, one simply orders the unit to move into the area from which the support is coming. Cutting support is important because sometimes you have units which are not adjacent to the area you want to attack, but which are adjacent to a unit supporting the defense. For example, the English have a corps at 14, a squadron at 233, and an army at 16, and want to attack 17. The French have an army at 17, and a corps at 18. The corps can not help support an attack on 17, because it is not adjacent. But it can attack 18, thus cutting its support for 17. (The orders for this would be: MO 16 17, SA 233 17, and MO 14 18). Then the attack on 17 would succeed. The English army at 16 would move to 17, and the French army would have to retreat.

Likewise, cutting support can aid the defender. For example, England has an army at 16 and a squadron at 233. France has an army at 17, but no unit adjacent to 17 to help defend the area, but does have a squadron at 234. He could give the order MO 234 233, thus cutting the support of the English squadron at 233. Note, however, that if the English moved the squadron at 233, and supported the attack from 16, the result would be that the French squadron would move successfully into 233, but the English squadron would successfully move into 17.

You can only cut the support of units that are smaller or the size as the unit you are using or; that is to say, 1 point units cannot cut the support of 2 point units (unless they have another 1 point unit supporting their move). Supporting the defense of a unit does not increase that unit's ability to resist being cut by other units. You cannot protect your units from having their support cut off by other players.

Another example may help understand how cutting support works. Your army in area 24 wants to attack the enemy army in area 27. You have another army in area 25 which will support your attack into 27. You have a third army in area 23 which will defend your army at 25. So you want to issue the commands MO 24 27, SD 23 25 and SA 25 27. But your enemy has a fleet in area 237 which is adjacent to areas 25 and 27. Now your enemy can do one of two things to successfully defend his army at 27: SD 237 27 or MO 237 25, which will break any support from area 25. The second command has the advantage that if you had vacated 25, the enemy fleet will capture it. Note that if area 237 had an enemy squadron instead, your support from 25 could not be broken. If you had a fleet next to his fleet, you can break his fleet's defense support of 27 by attacking his fleet. Note that your third army at 23 cannot stop the enemy fleet from cutting your support at 25.

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5.5 Cutting Convoys

Convoys may also be cut. When a unit which is convoying land units is attacked by a unit equal or greater in strength, the convoy fails at that point. The land unit is left at an adjacent friendly area, working backwards from the point of interception. That is to say, if a land unit is being convoyed over several areas, if one unit is intercepted, the land units are left in the nearest friendly area, beginning where the interception takes place, and moving backwards to where it began. (see 7.6 for more information on convoys). For example given that Spain has a corps in 11, a fleet in 221, a sqadron in 220, and squadron in 219 and is trying to convoy to 180 (CO 11 221 220 219 180), and there is a German squadron in 218 which issues a command MO 218 219. The result would be that the convoy is broken at 219, the last succesfull area convoyed into was 220, so if Spain owned any area adjacent to 220 that was empty the corps would be retreated there.

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6.0 Victory Conditions

On the first turn each Great Power submits a command proposing the number of turns the game should last (between 10 and 40) and the percentage increase to win (between 300 and 500). By taking the average of all the Great Powers victory selections, the game will end at an unknown turn (but no longer than 40 turns) and an unknown percentage. The game ends when the designated number of turns is completed or when a Great Power reaches the designated percentage increase, whichever happens first. The winner of the game will be the player who is ranked highest at the end. Ties are possible.

Each land and sea area is worth 1 victory point, each 1 point supply centre is worth 1 victory point, each 2 point supply centre is worth 2 victory points, and each capital adds 5 victory points. The percentage increase in the Great Power's victory points is the percentage difference between the initial and current victory points.

Failing to answer a Call to Arms cause you to suffer a -20% penalty. This penalty last for 4 turns, and is reduced by 5% each turn (ie 2nd turn its 15%, then 10% and finally 5%). So if you had a VP of 400, and a 20% Call to Arms penalty, your real VP would be 320.

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7.0 Commands

Each turn an area/unit may be issued one and only one command. Commands are executed in the following sequence.

7.1 Army Add

Format: AA area

Description: This command adds a new army to the area. Armies are 2 point units which can only be added at empty 2 point supply centres and then only if you have 2 surplus supply points. New units are immobile on their first turn. They can only be defended.

Example: AA 18

This command adds a new army to area 18.

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7.2 Add Corps

Format: AC area

Description: This command adds a new corps to the area. Corps are 1 point units which can only be added at empty supply centres and then only if you have a surplus supply point. New units are immobile on their first turn. They can only be defended.

Example: AC 32

This commands adds a new corps to area 32.

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7.3 Add Fleet

Format: AF area

Description: This command adds a new fleet to the area. Fleets are 2 point units which can only be added at empty coastal 2 point supply centres and then only if you have 2 surplus supply points. New units are immobile on their first turn. They can only be defended.

Example: AF 3

This commands adds a new fleet to area 3.

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7.4 Add Squadron

Format: AS area

Description: This command adds a new squadron to the area. Squadrons are 1 point units which can only be added at empty coastal supply centres and then only if you have a surplus supply point. New units are immobile on their first turn. They can only be defended.

Example: AS 5

This commands adds a new squadron to area 15.

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7.5 Call To Arms

Format: CA Great-Power(1) Great-Power(2)

Description: With this command you summon your ally to join you in your war against another Great Power. To work, you must be allied to Great Power(1) and at war with Great Power(2).

If you fail to answer a CA, you suffer a -20% penalty to your victory points. The penalty is reduced by 5% each turn (ie 15%, 10%, 5%).

Example: CA 3 10

This command calls your ally, 3-England, to war against your enemy, 10-Spain.

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7.6 Convoy

Format: CO area-from sea-area(1) ... sea-area(n) area-to

Description: This command convoys a land unit from one coastal area to another across sea areas (you cannot convoy a land unit along a coastline). The land unit must be the same size or smaller than the naval units (fleets can convoy both armies and corps, but squadrons can convoy only corps). The convoy can be of any length. You may only convoy your land units with your own naval units.

Convoys can be disrupted if any of the naval units are engaged in any way. If a friendly or enemy fleet tries to move into a sea area where your fleet is doing a convoy, then the convoyed unit is not moved, and must retreat back to where it started, or to a friendly land area adjacent to the last naval unit it convoyed upon. You can not prevent a convoy from being disrupted by supporting its defense. Example: CO 7 234 237 44

This commands convoys the land unit in area 7 to area 44, through sea areas 234 and 237.

You can convoy a land unit from a coastal area across one or more water areas (providing you have sufficient sea units points in each water area) to another coastal area. You can't convoy across a coastal area. You cannot support the defence of a convoy command-just the defence of the sea units. You can disrupt a convoy by matching or overcoming the defence of any sea unit performing the convoy. A convoy that is disrupted means the land unit doesn't leave the coastal area. Example: Italy has an army at 31 he wants to convoy to area 51 using his fleets at 227 and 226. He issues the command CO 31 227 226 51 and hopes no one else will try to "bump" his convoying fleets. If the convoyed army is successful in its attack on area 51, the army will end its turn there; otherwise, the convoy/attack failed and the army stays at area 31. Note that if 226 was a squadron, the convoy would fail as the army requires a 2 point sea unit to convoy it. Also note that the convoying fleets can perform no other action that turn as they are doing a convoy.

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7.7 Declare Ally

Format: DA Great-Power(1) ... Great-Power(n)

Description: This command allows you to attempt to ally with other Great Power(s) which you are currently neutral with. The command must be submitted simultaneously by both Great Powers.

Example: DA 3 10

This command has you trying to ally with 3-England and with 10-Spain/Portugal. This will work only if you are currently neutral with England and Spain/Portugal, and all submit the declare ally command on the same turn.

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7.8 Declare Neutral

Format: DN Great-Power(1) ... Great-Power(n)

Description: This command allows you to either attempt to end a war or break an alliance with other Great Power(s). To end the war, both you and the other Great Power(s) must submit this command on the same turn; however, to break an alliance, only requires one of the Great Powers to submit this command.

Example: DN 3 10

Assuming you are at war with 3-England and allied with 10-Spain/Portugal, this commands would simultaneously attempt to stop the war with 3-England (i.e. go neutral with them) while breaking the alliance with 10-Spain/Portugal.

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7.9 Declare War

Format: DW Great-Power(1) ... Great-Power(n)

Description: This command allows you to declare war on other Great Power(s) which you are currently neutral with. You can not issue this command on the first turn. You can attack the same turn that you declare war.

Example: DW 3 10

This commands has your Great Power going to war with 3-England and 10-Spain/Portugal.

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7.10 Downgrade Unit

Format: DU area

Description: When you can't maintain all your units because your supply points are less than your unit points, you have the option to either remove (see section 7.14) or downgrade units until your supply points and unit points are equal. This command reduces 2 point units to 1 point units. It is not necessary to be at a supply centre to downgrade a unit. You may not downgrade a unit unless required to.

If you are required to downgrade a unit and fail to issue the command on your turn, the a unit of yours will be randomly downgraded. In that case a code of FDU (Force DownGrade Unit) will appear in the list of your units beside the unit that was downgraded.

Example: DU 3

This command reduce the 2 point unit in area 3 to a 1 point unit.

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7.11 Grant Ally Access

Format: GA Great-Power area(1) ... area(n) or
Format: GA Great-Power all

Format: GA Great-Power 0

Format: GA Great-Power

Description: For the present turn this command allows another Great Power to either move through or support an attack into one of your areas. If you do not grant an ally access, they can not enter your areas. If your ally breaks the alliance on the turn you grant him access, the grant access with fail and your ex-ally will not be allowed access to the areas.

GA Great-Power all, GA Great-Power 0 and GA Great-Power are all the same and grant access to all areas.

Example1: GA 3 16 17

For the present turn, this command grants Great Power 3-England access to areas 16 and 17.

Example2: GA 3 all

For the present turn, this command grants Great Power 3-England access to all areas.

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7.12 Message

Format: ME Great-Power message-text

Description: This command allows you to send messages 45 characters in length, to other Great Powers. Split messages longer than 45 characters into two messages.

To send a message to everyone set Great-Power to all or zero.

The person receiving the message does not know who sent it.

Example: ME 3 Hello there, want to ally?

Great Power 3-England will get this message this turn.

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7.13 Move

Format: MO area-from area-to

Description: This command is used to move a unit from one area to an adjacent one. You can always move to an area you own, even if another Great Power is occupying it or to a sea area regardless of who is there. To move into an land or coastal area owned by another Great Power you must be either at war with them or be allied with them and have access granted to you. You always break the attacking unit's attempt to support an attack or defense if you try to move into its area. You disrupt a convoy by attempting to move into the convoying naval units sea area.

Units cannot exchange areas in the same turn; they would retreat to their starting areas if they tried to swap. Since all movement of units is simultaneous. Example: MO 20 19

Assuming you are at war with the owner of area 19, this command has your unit in area 20 trying to move to area 19. If you outnumber the defending unit, then your unit will end the turn in area 19; otherwise, your unit tries to return to area 20 (refer back to section 5.0 for how retreats work). If, however, you are neutral with the owner of area 19 or you are allied with the owner of area 19 but have not been granted access to the area, the command will fail. You can always move to an area that is not owner by another Great Power. If the unit at 19 was supporting an attack or defense, the support would be broken provided the unit in 20 is as strong or stronger than the unit in 19.

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7.14 Remove Unit

Format: RU area

Description: When you can't maintain all your units because your supply points are less than your unit points, you have the option to either downgrade units (see section 7.10) or remove them until your supply points and unit points are equal. Both 1 and 2 point unit can be removed from any area (it is not necessary to be at a supply centre). You may not remove a unit unless required to.

If you are required to remove a unit and fail to issue the command on your turn, then a unit of your will be randomly removed. In that case, a code of FRU (Forced Removed Unit) will appear in the list of your units beside the unit that was removed.

Example: RU 194

This command would eliminate the unit in area 194.

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7.15 Support Attack

Format: SA area-from area-to Great-Power

Description: This command is used to support an attack (yours or an ally's) on an adjacent area. When you are supporting one of your own attacking units, you need not indicate yourself as the Great Power. Supporting an attack helps capture areas (refer back to section 5.0). Note that in order for a unit to support an attack, it must have the ability to move into the attacked area. Depending on the circumstances, a naval unit (in a coastal area) may not be able to support an attack on an adjacent coastal area if the two areas do not border a common sea area.

Example: MO 21 17
Example: SA 20 17

The English army (2 unit points) in area 21-Burgundy would move into area 17-Picardy, supported by the English corps (1 unit point) in area 20-Belgium. The French army (2 unit points) in area 17-Picardy would loose the area to the English army and retreat to a friendly area adjacent to 17.

Example : SA 20 17 3

This command directs your unit in area 20-Belgium to support player 3 England into area 17-Picardy. You must be allied to England for this command to work. You can ally with a player and perfom a SA command for them on the same turn. If area 17 is owned by another player, you must also be at war with them.

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7.16 Support Defence

Format: SD area-from area-to

Description: This command is used to support the defence (yours or an ally's) of an adjacent unit. You can not support the defense of an empty area, only units in that area. Supporting the defence of a unit makes it harder for the enemy to capture the area (refer back to section 5.0). In order for a unit to support the defense of a unit, it must have the ability to move into the defended area. The defending unit must stay in the area for the defense to take effect. When defending another player you must be allied to that player. When supporting an ally in their own area, you do not need to have access granted to you, but if you are supporting a unit that is in an area owned by a player that is different than the owner of the area, you need to have access granted to you for the by the owner of the area.

Example: If in the above support attack example, there had been a French corps in area 18-Paris, that had issued the command SD 18 23, then the English attack would have failed (both the English and French would have had 3 unit points). No units would have moved or been destroyed, provided that no other units had moved into area 21-Burgundy thus obstructing the English army's retreat.

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7.17 Spy

Format: SP area(1) ... area(6)

Description: Each turn, six spies can be sent out to different land, sea or costal areas on the map. Their purpose is to report back on what's happening in each area on that turn. Accordingly, to keep an eye on a specific area, you must send a spy there each turn.

Example: SP 26 27 206 223 228 222

This command places a spy in each of these six areas.

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7.18 Upgrade Unit

Format: UU area

Description: If you have less unit points than supply points, you can either add new units (sections 7.1 to 7.4) or upgrade 1 point units to 2 point units. The 1 point unit must be at a supply centre (can be a i or 2 point supply centre) at the start of the turn to be upgraded.

Example: UU 226

The 1 point unit in area 226 is upgraded to a 2 point unit.

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7.19 Victory Conditions

Format: VC turn-length percentage-increase

Description: This command, which is only used on the first turn, sets your vote as to the game end victory conditions. For turn length, you can choose between 10 and 40 turns, while for percentage increase, you can choose between 300 and 500 percent (see section 6.0 for a complete description of the victory conditions).

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8.0 Reports

Each turn every player receives a report consisting of the following parts:

The accounting section shows the player's Account Id, personal information (name, address, phone number), The last 10 game turns are also shown here.

The header section summarizes the game information (the Game Id, turn and country identifiers).

The highlights section summarizes your current status, showing your holdings (both in terms of land areas and supply points), your military strength (the numbers and classes of units) and your overall standing in the game (your percentage increase and your ranking).

The body provides the in-depth report for all the areas you are interested in as well as each area you own or have units in. This section of the report includes the area identifiers, indicates the supply centre point values and shows who owned the area at the start of the turn and who currently owns the area (**** indicates you own the area/unit). In addition, it shows what unit started the turn in the area (and who owned it), what command it was given and whether it worked (commands in brackets failed, while (-/DEAD) means the unit was killed and (-/RArea-Id) means that the unit was forced to retreat). The double-underline separates the reports into the areas you own and the areas of interest (i.e. the areas you are spying on and adjacent to).

The allied/neutral/war report shows the current relationships between the Great Powers in a matrix format (where WWWW = war, AAAA = allied, blank = neutral).

The news bulletins section is reserved for news headlines. Here you will find out which Great Powers have captured areas from one another, who the top four players are ( ??? is doing very well ) and if anyone is within 20% of the victory conditions or is within 70% of wining if there are 3 or less turns left ( ??? is doing VERY WELL ). Minor gains/loses are defined as capturing/losing 3-6 vicotry points, while major gains.loses are defined as capturing/losing 7-10 victory points, spectaccular gains is capturing over 10 vicotry points. Under the Alliances Headlines you will find the changing relationships between countries: who's declared war on who, who wants to end a war, who want's to start a war.

The final two sections deal with the results of your current commands (and any error messages if the command failed) and the possible commands for your upcoming turn.

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9.0 Command Format

To hand in a turn, e-mail your commands to the EMG address provided on your report. Turns can be handed in multiple times, with each new set of commands, overwriting the previous set of commands. The subject line of your message must say EMGTURN. The first line must say EMGSTART, then the second line must be your Account ID, the third line must be the Game ID, then place commands one per line, and finally end your commands with EMGEND. Spacing and indentation doesn't matter. For example:
		Subject: EMGTURN

		    MO 1 45 
		    DW 3 

A message will be sent back saying weither your commands where accepted or if the account or game id where invalid.

Becuase mail sometimes gets bounced or is undelivered, you can request a report to be mailed to you at anytime by sending in the following message:

		Subject: EMGREPORT


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Appendix A: Command Summary

       Add Army           :  AA  area
       Add Corps          :  AC  area
       Add Fleet          :  AF  area
       Add Squadron       :  AS  area
       Call To Arms       :  CA  Great-Power(1)  Great-Power(2)
       Convoy             :  CO  area-frm sea-area(1)...sea-area(n) area-to
       Declare Ally       :  DA  Great-Power(1) ... Great-Power(n)         
       Declare Neutral    :  DN  Great-Power(1) ... Great-Power(n)         
       Declare War        :  DW  Great-Power(1) ... Great-Power(n)         
       Downgrade Unit     :  DU  area
       Grant Ally Access  :  GA  Great-Power  area(1) ... area(n)   or
			     GA  Great-Power  all
       Message            :  ME  Great-Power  message-text
       Move               :  MO  area-from  area-to
       Remove Unit        :  RU  area
       Support Attack     :  SA   area-from  area-to  Great-Power          
       Support Defense    :  SD  area-from  area-to
       Spy                :  SP  area(1)  ...  area(6)
       Upgrade Unit       :  UU  area
       Victory Conditions :  VC  turn-length  percentage
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Appendix B: Unit Summary

	       Point   Supply        Allowable Areas
	       Value   Costs       Land   Coastal   Sea
	       -----  --------     ----   -------   ---
       Army      2       2          Y        Y       N
       Corps     1       1          Y        Y       N
       Fleet     2       2          N        Y       Y
       Squadron  1       1          N        Y       Y
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Appendix C: Age of Discovery Rules

C.1 Introduction

Age of Discovery is a Global Diplomacy variant that features: Age of Discovery can have between 9 and 20 players.

C.2 Variances from Global Diplomacy

Maps and Areas

The map in Age of Discovery is unique for each game. The map wraps East-West and North-South. Part of your report each turn includes a map which displays all the areas you have ever been to or spied upon. To assist you in collating the report and the map, the report data is repeated on the map.

	 +-----+    where XXX ==> Area Id
	 | XXX |          T   ==> Area Type (L=Land  C=Coast  W=Water) 
	 | TAA |          AA  ==> Supply points (*=1 point  **=2 points)
	 | BCD |          B   ==> Area Owner (first initial of your name)
	 +-----+          C   ==> Unit Owner (the owner's first initial)
			  D   ==> Unit Type (A=Army  C=Corp  etc.)
Area Ids are the same for each player, but the corresponding area name (represented by their X Y coordinates) are different for each player. Consequently, two players will not be able to exchange meaningful map information until they have an Area Id in common and can thus compare its X Y coordinates (the X axis runs from left to right on the map, the Y-axis runs from top to the bottom). Areas can be anywhere from one to three squares in size.

Spy Command

In addition to assigning an Area Id for a spy to go to, in Age of Discovery you can also give the X Y coordinates. When sending a spy to an X Y coordinate include leading zeros (X Y coordinates 2 1 are written 0201). When writing your spy command, you can use both Area Ids and X Y coordinates. In Age of Discovery the number of spies available is 12. Spies can also not be sent further than 2 areas away from areas you already know about or will end the turn in.


In Age of Discovery there are no capitals.

Victory Conditions Command

In Age of Discovery the possible percentage increase is between 900 and 1500 percent.

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Appendix D: Rule Changes

V1.38 2002-Sep-02

V1.37 1999-Oct-05


Additional formats for GA command added.


More comments and samples added.


SD modified so that you do not need to have access to support an allies unit if they are in their own area.


Message command changed so that it does not display who sent the message.


Victory conditions for Global Diplomacy and Age of Discovery changed to 10-40 turns; Age of Discovery percentage changed to 900-1500.

No other rule changes, but more explaination provided to sections:

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