University of Saskatchewan Department of Psychology

Theories and Treatment of Criminal Behaviour PSY 230.3

Fall Session (T1) 2016

 

MIDTERM EXAM REVIEW

(all midterm questions that > 49% of the class answered incorrectly)

 

9. Freud is most associated with which of the following fields?

a) Traditional psychiatric criminology *

b) Sociological criminology

c) Psychological criminology

d) Contemporary psychiatric criminology
            e) All of the above.

 

12. Self-report studies of criminal behavior:

a) usually have been found to be more accurate with female subjects.

b) are typically inaccurate in most areas studied.

c) usually attempt to measure only prior involvement in felonies.

d) suggest that crime is committed by all socioeconomic classes. *

e) All of the above.

 

24. The fundamental basis for criminality, according to Eysenck, is:

a) the overreactive RAS.

b) personality differences in conditionability. *

c) material gain for the criminal behavior.

d) instrumental conditioning.

e) parental influences.

 

27. The personality dimension that empirical research finds most consistently associated with crime is:

a) extraversion.

b) neurotic extraversion.

c) neuroticism.

d) psychoticism. *

e) antisocialism.

 

30. Criminaloids

a) are easily influenced.*

b) are very impulsive.

c) are hysterical types.

d) are morally insane.

e) None of the above.

 

35. One of the problems with classical conditioning explanations of criminal behavior is that they:

a) have not been empirically supported.

b) do not account for situational factors.

c) presume the person has no self-determination. *

d) do not consider biological factors.

e) none of the above.

 

36. The concept that there is a continual exchange of influences between the environment and the person is called:

a) nature-nurture interface.

b) deindividuation.

c) mutual interaction.

d) envirohumanism.

e) reciprocal interaction. *

 

38. According to Julian Rotter, whether a particular pattern of behavior will occur depends on:

a) operant conditioning.

b) classical conditioning.

c) our ability to control biological drives.

d) biological programming.

e) our expectancies and how much we value the outcome. *

 

47. According to Differential Association-Reinforcement Theory, signals that communicate that certain behaviors are encouraged and reinforced are:

a) neutralizing stimuli.

b) justifying discriminative stimuli.

c) neutralizing reinforcements.

d) social reinforcements.

e) positive discriminative stimuli. *

54. If you were a TV producer and wanted an argument to support your position of the value of violence on television, you would probably rely on which of the following theoretical positions?

a) Psychoanalytic or psychodynamic. *

b) Social learning.

c) Frustration-aggression.

d) Behaviorism.

e) Modeling.

 

56. The psychodynamic approach to the treatment of aggressive behavior would most likely emphasize:

a) appropriate modeling.

b) reinforcement.

c) reduction of aggressive energy through supervised aggressive behavior. *

d) avoidance of aggressive-provoking stimuli.

e) none of the above.

 

61. During early stages of frustration or general arousal, cognitive processes appear to have little influence beyond the immediate appraisal that the situation is aversive. This description outlines a stage of what model of aggression and violence?

a) Cognitive expectancy theory

b) The neo-frustration-aggression model

c) The cognitive neoassociation model *

d) The weapons effect model

e) The cognitive scripts model

 

68. Although offenders are individuals, the following generalization about persistent offenders can be made:

a) they are mentally disordered.

b) they began their criminal careers in late adolescence.

c) they tend to be polysubstance users.*

d) they specialize in one type of offending.

e) b and d

 

69. In the Boothby/Clements survey of correctional psychologists, the researchers found that the least amount of their time was spent:

a) at classification.

b) at administrative tasks.

c) conducting research.*

d) providing treatment.

e) at assessing.

 

74. A criminogenic need is,

a) any risk factor for criminal recidivism.

b) a dynamic risk factor associated with an individuals offending.*

c) any risk factor associated with a human need.

d) the most important risk factor for an individuals offending.

e) None of the above.

 

75. The Responsivity Principle has two components, which are,

a) personal and therapeutic responsivity.

b) general and personal responsivity.

c) therapeutic and general responsivity.

d) individual and general responsivity.

e) None of the above. *

 

76. Core Correctional Practice includes

a) supporting self-esteem

b) effective punishment

c) effective reinforcement *

d) differential reinforcement

e) All of the above

 

77. The developmental perspective on crime and antisocial behavior views the life course of all humans as following a:

a) series of distinct age-related stages of development.

b) developmental pathway littered with risk factors. *

c) vertical line dependent upon physiological milestones.

d) sequence of stages that enhance empathy.

e) hierarchy of moral development.

 

81. Which statement is most accurate about juvenile crime?

a)   Juvenile crime has generally decreased since the mid 1990s. *

b)   The juvenile crime rate has been steadily increasing since 1990.

c)   Compared to adults, juveniles are responsible for disproportionately higher number of violent crimes.

d)   Juveniles are more likely to be perpetrators rather than victims of violent crime.

e)   The majority of juvenile offenders are arrested and convicted.

83. _____ prevention consists of working with children and adolescents who demonstrate some early signs of aggressive, antisocial, conduct disorder, or delinquent behavior but have not yet been formally classified as delinquent.

a) Primary

b) Multisystemic

c) Tertiary

d) Indicated

e) Secondary *

84. Patterson's Coercion Developmental Theory places more emphasis on _____, whereas Moffit's Developmental Theory emphasizes _____.

a) parenting; characteristics of the child *

b) violent offenses; status offenses

c) boys' delinquency; girls' delinquency

d) treatment; prevention

e) developmental trajectories; societal influences