University of Saskatchewan – Department of Psychology

Theories and Treatment of Criminal Behaviour – PSY 230.3

Fall Session (T1) 2014

 

MIDTERM EXAM REVIEW

(all midterm questions that > 49% of the class answered incorrectly)

 

9. Freud is most associated with which of the following fields?

            a) Traditional psychiatric criminology *

            b) Sociological criminology

            c) Psychological criminology

            d) Contemporary psychiatric criminology
            e) All of the above.

 

12. Self-report studies of criminal behavior:

            a) usually have been found to be more accurate with female subjects.

            b) are typically inaccurate in most areas studied.

            c) usually attempt to measure only prior involvement in felonies.

            d) suggest that crime is committed by all socioeconomic classes. *

            e) All of the above.

 

13. Which is not a method of measuring crime?

            a) UCR

            b) self-report studies

            c) PCL-R *

            d) National Victimization Studies

            e) Supplementary homicide report

24. The fundamental basis for criminality, according to Eysenck, is:

            a) the overreactive RAS.

            b) personality differences in conditionability.  *

            c) material gain for the criminal behavior.

            d) instrumental conditioning.

            e) parental influences.

 

27. The personality dimension that empirical research finds most consistently associated with crime is:

            a) extraversion.

            b) neurotic extraversion.

            c) neuroticism.

            d) psychoticism. *

            e) antisocialism.

 

30. Criminaloids

            a) are easily influenced.*

            b) are very impulsive.

            c) are hysterical types.

            d) are morally insane.

            e) None of the above.

 

35. One of the problems with classical conditioning explanations of criminal behavior is that they:

            a) have not been empirically supported.

            b) do not account for situational factors.

            c) presume the person has no self-determination. *

            d) do not consider biological factors.

            e) none of the above.

 

42. According to Sutherland’s theory of differential association:

            a) criminal behavior can be learned only by associating with others who are criminal.

            b) violent behavior is biologically determined.

            c) criminal behavior is learned like any other behavior. *

            d) criminal behavior is learned primarily through classical conditioning.

            e) none of the above.

 

45. The most important aspect of whether criminal behavior is maintained is the:

            a) personality of the person.

            b) biological makeup of the person.

            c) amount of reinforcement.

            d) degree of social pressure.

            e) nature of the reinforcement gained. *

 

54. If you were a TV producer and wanted an argument to support your position of the value of violence on television, you would probably rely on which of the following theoretical positions?

            a) Psychoanalytic or psychodynamic.  *

            b) Social learning.

            c) Frustration-aggression.

            d) Behaviorism.

            e) Modeling.

 

61. During early stages of frustration or general arousal, cognitive processes appear to have little influence beyond the immediate appraisal that the situation is aversive. This description outlines a stage of what model of aggression and violence?

            a) Cognitive expectancy theory

            b) The neo-frustration-aggression model

            c) The cognitive neoassociation model  *

            d) The weapons effect model

            e) The cognitive scripts model

 

68. Although offenders are individuals, the following generalization about persistent offenders can be made:

            a) they are mentally disordered.

            b) they began their criminal careers in late adolescence.

            c) they tend to be polysubstance users.*

            d) they specialize in one type of offending.

            e) b and d

 

69. In the Boothby/Clements survey of correctional psychologists, the researchers found that the least amount of their time was spent:

            a) at classification.

            b) at administrative tasks.

            c) conducting research.*

            d) providing treatment.

            e) at assessing.

 

75. The Responsivity Principle has two components, which are,

            a) personal and therapeutic responsivity.

            b) general and personal responsivity.

            c) therapeutic and general responsivity.

            d) individual and general responsivity.

            e) None of the above. *

 

76. Core Correctional Practice includes

            a) supporting self-esteem

            b) effective punishment

            c) effective reinforcement *

            d) differential reinforcement

            e) All of the above

 

77. The developmental perspective on crime and antisocial behavior views the life course of all humans as following a:

            a) series of distinct age-related stages of development.

            b) developmental pathway littered with risk factors. *

            c) vertical line dependent upon physiological milestones.

            d) sequence of stages that enhance empathy.

            e) hierarchy of moral development.