CLASS: ST4. Atlantic Type 4-4-2.

Based on text by Omer Lavallée.


Taken from Spanner Magazine, Collectors' Item - 4 by Omer Lavallée

Three locomotives were specially built to provided for the Montreal-Ottawa passenger service at the turn of the century. They were constructed at the DeLorimier Works in Montreal to the design of A. W. Horsey, under the direction of H. H. Vaughan. Mr. Horsey is shown standing beside No. 209, dwarfed by the engine's 84-inch driving wheels, largest ever employed on a Canadian Pacific locomotive.

It was in 1898 that the Company completed the so-called "Short Line" between Montreal and Ottawa via Vankleek Hill; this brought it immediately into competition with the neighbouring and parallel Canada Atlantic Railway, an aggressive system owned by J.R. Booth, the Ottawa lumber king, whose "Canada Atlantic Express" linking Canada's metropolis and its capital, proudly claimed to have been the first passenger train in this country with vestibuled passenger cars and electric Iighting.

Competition started in the autumn of 1899, after the Canada Atlantic had obtained three locomotives from the Baldwin Locomotive Works which, essentially, were duplicates of the CPR engines.

By the summer of 1900 the CPR's fastest schedule was an Ottawa-Montreal morning one which performed the 113 miles in two hours, 20 minutes, including four infermediate stops. Such a schedule would require the locomotive to run daily at a speed well in excess of a mile a minute.

These 4-4-2 "Attantic" type locomotives used the Vauclain system of compound steam distribution, popular at the time. By this method, live steam, exhausted from high-pressure cylinders, woutd be re-used in a second set of low-pressure cylinders. Though fuel consumption diminished, the high maintenance costs necessitated by the more complicated mechanism militated against the system, and the locomotives were later changed, in 1910-12, to conventional "simple" engines. They were scrapped in 1917.

Numbers CP209-CP211, CP1000-CP1002, CP950-CP952
Number of locos built in this class 3
Builders Canadian Pacific, DeLorimier Works, Montreal
Years Built 1899
Type Ten Wheeler Atlantic type 4-4-2
Tractive Force (CP209) n/a
Cylinder size (CP209) 99x99-cm (23x26-inch)
Driving Wheel diameter 999 cm (84 in.)


Preserved: None.