||Every printer installed on
a computer must have the appropriate printer driver installed on that
computer. To facilitate the installation of printer drivers on
network printer clients, if the print server is running
Windows NT or a later Windows version, the required driver can be
automatically sent to the client from the server when the
network printer is added to the client. If both the
client and server have the same version of the Windows operating
system, nothing extra needs to be done on the server for this to
work. However, if the client has a different version of
Windows, then the driver for that version must be installed on the
print server, in such a manner that is available for transmission to
the client. The printer drivers for other operating systems
that are installed this way are referred to as Additional Drivers.
The printer's Sharing Property page on the print server
has a dialog for installing Additional Drivers.
|administrative rights and permissions
||a bundle of rights and permissions
that are required to perform administrative actions on a particular
computer. Normally, a user account acquires these rights and
permissions by being a member of the Administrators built-in
group on the computer in question.
||The computer making a request
across a network to another computer is referred to as the client
computer. Thus, a computer using a printer that is shared from another
computer is referred to as the (print) client computer. The
other computer is referred to as the server.
||a character string keyed by a
user in a Command Prompt window, command file or script
that directs the operating system to perform a particular operation.
||a file that contains commands and control
statements. These files normally have .cmd as the extension, although
the .bat extension can also be used. Launching (double clicking) one
of these files (.cmd or .bat) will launch the NT, 2000 or XP command
processor - cmd.exe.
|Command Prompt window
||a window presented by a command
processing program that interprets commands keyed by a user. In
Windows NT, 2000 and XP, there are two command processing programs: cmd.exe
and command.com. The Command Prompt icons normally launch cmd.exe
which is a native, 32 bit program which supports many commands.
Command.com is a 16 bit program that provides an emulated DOS environment.
Windows NT, 2000 and XP don't come with any shortcuts for launching
command.com directly, but it can be launched via Start, Run.
The name that
identifies a particular computer on the network. This has no
relationship to any user name. To find the computer name:
right click on My Computer on
the desktop and select Manage
right click on the root of the
tree in the left pane of the Computer Management window (Computer
Management (Local)) and select Properties
Select the Network
click Start, right click on
Computer and select Manage
right click on the root of the
tree in the left pane of the Computer Management window (Computer
Management (Local)) and select Properties
Computer Name tab
||A piece of software that allows
the system or an application to interact with (use) a particular piece of
hardware. Generally speaking, drivers are written by the hardware
manufacturer to work with a specific operating system using a standard
interface specification defined by the operating system vendor (e.g.
Microsoft). For convenience of the user, many such drivers are
obtained from hardware vendors by the operating system vendor and packaged
with the operating system. Also, the operating system vendor usually
specifies how a driver needs to be packaged so that it can be
installed using the driver installation process defined for the
operating system. Some hardware manufacturers choose not to package
their drivers this way, but rather provide their own, non-standard
installation method. See also printer driver
global network printer is available to any user that logs on to the
computer to which it has been added. A network printer that is not
added globally is available only to the user that added it (e.g. by
using the Add Printer wizard).
||A TCP/IP protocol for sending
print data between computers (or from a computer to a print server device).
LPR stands for Line Printer Requestor. LPD stands for Line Printer
Daemon. This protocol is defined in RFC 1179 (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1179.txt?number=1179).
It was originally intended for transmitting standard Line Printer
print data streams.
||e.g. LPT1; This is the name that
is used in DOS (and has carried over to Windows) as the device name for a
parallel port on a computer. When an DOS application wants to
send data to a print device, it tells DOS to send the data to the LPTn
device. DOS is pretty simplistic and has no concept of a print
device being connected to anything but a parallel port. In
Windows, LPTn is still used as a short name for parallel port n.
||In Windows NT, 2000 and XP, a permission is
the authority to access or manipulate a resource (e.g. file, folder,
printer). Permissions are binary: either you have a particular
permission or you don't. Permissions are managed using the
resource's Security tab. The permissions available depend on
the type of resource. For example, printers have six possible
permissions: Print, Manage Printers, Manage Documents,
Read Permissions, Change Permissions and Take Ownership.
The last three control who can manipulate the permissions granted for
a printer. Any particular user may be granted (or denied) any
combination of these permissions. Files and folders have many
more permissions. In contrast, see right.
A printer pool is a set of
more or less identical print devices that appear to the user a single
printer. Each print device is associated with its own
port. In a printer pool, there are multiple ports
associated with a single printer. Since there is only one
(logical) printer, all the print devices in a printer pool
use the same printer driver. Thus, print devices in a
printer pool must be identical in the sense that the printer driver
for the printer pool works with all the print devices.
Also, they should have the same set of hardware features. The user
doesn't get to select which print device in the pool to use,
so, for example, if one has a duplexing unit and one doesn't, double sided
printing may or may not work depending on which print device happens
to be used.
1. Open the Properties of the Printer to be pooled
Select the Ports tab
3. Add a check mark to the Printer Pooling check box
4. Click on the port(s) corresponding to the print device(s)
that are to be part of the pool to add a check mark to them
5. Click OK
physical port: a connector and associated
electronics for attaching peripherals (e.g. parallel, serial, USB)
local port: a logical construct (object)
that describes a physical port (see 1 above)
or some other piece of equipment (e.g. a printer's LAN adapter) and
controls communication between devices attached to that physical
port and the operating system or applications.
Typical types of ports for print devices are parallel (LPT),
Standard TCP/IP and USB.
network printer port: a local port (as in 2 above) that
represents a printer share on another computer
IP port: a logical end point of a
communication path using TCP/IP. For example, port 80 is the TCP
through which a web server communicates with web browsers; port 515 is the
TCP port that the Line Printer Daemon (LPD service) receives communication
from Line Printer Requestor (LPR) clients.
|Port 9100 protocol
A protocol, originally designed by HP, for encapsulating
print data streams in TCP/IP packets. The print server device
normally listens on (receives on) TCP port 9100, thus the name of the
protocol. It is a very simple protocol in which, essentially, the data
(payload) part of the TCP/IP packets constitute only and exactly the data to
be sent to the print device. In a Microsoft Standard TCP/IP port's
configuration, this is called the RAW protocol.
A small piece of software that is responsible
for providing a communications path between the print spooler and the port
hardware (abstracted from
From the printer management user interface perspective, a
port monitor provides printer ports of a particular type (e.g.
Standard TCP/IP port).
||a piece of equipment with integrated
electronics that transfer something to a media for reading by humans, or
some more esoteric devices (e.g. for cutting a template or mask), according
to the data stream it receives from a printer object via a port.
A printer may be connected to physical port on a computer or
to a network by an internal or external LAN adapter. Typical print
- a computer running some variety of Windows that has one
or more printers shared for use by other computers using the
Microsoft Network Printing protocol.
- a computer running some other operating system that
implements the Microsoft Network Printing protocol (e.g. Samba running on
a UNIX based computer).
- a computer that implements the LPD service and thus can
process print requested from LPR clients
a piece of equipment that provides a way of connecting a
device to a network. Usually, this has a single LAN connector
(e.g. RJ45) and one or more physical ports (e.g. parallel or
serial) for connecting print devices or that can be installed
inside a print device and connects to that device using a
proprietary interface. These devices usually support a variety of
network protocols (e.g. lpr/lpd over TCP/IP, Port 9100 or RAW printer
protocol over TCP/IP, DLC, IPX/SPX, AppleTalk). These devices are
essentially protocol converters and can communicate with only one computer
at a time for each physically attached print device. They do
not provide spooling or print queue management.
a piece of equipment (similar
to 4 above), but that implements enough of the Microsoft Networking
protocols to appear to Windows as if it were a print server of type
1 above. For some of these devices, you need to install a piece of
software that adds a port monitor for port types specific to this
device (print server).
When used in
articles on this site, print server means type 1or 2 above, print
server device means type 4, unless
otherwise specifically identified.
||A service that intercepts print
output from an application and redirects it to a temporary file. The
print spooler also read these temporary files (called spool files)
and sends them to the printer, when it is available.
Generally, an application can generate print output many
times faster than even the fastest print device can actually print.
Without a print spooler service, the application would have to
operate at the speed of the print device.
Printer drivers run as part of the print spooler
service. So, a defective printer driver can cause the
print spooler service to fail, or in some situations, prevent it from
starting at all. If the print spooler service is not running,
you can't print and no printers show in the Printers or Printers and
||a logical construct (an object or resource)
that provides attributes (information or descriptions) to the operating
system, applications and users (e.g. via the printer's Properties
dialog) about one or more print devices. There are two classes
of printer objects: local and network. For
- local means that this printer object
communicates with the print device(s) directly via a local port.
- network means that this printer object is
a proxy for another printer object that is shared from another
Please see port for more information about
Windows 9x does not have the concept of local and
network printers per se as does NT, 2000 and XP. With Windows
9x, one creates a (local) printer and associates it with a port
that happens to be redirected to a shared printer on another computer.
With Windows NT, 2000 and XP, the normal and recommended approach is to
create a network printer when you want to make use of a shared
printer. In some situations, (e.g. the printer driver can not be
added to the shared printer as an Additional Driver, you may
have to resort to the approach used with Window 9x, but then you have a
local type printer object, not a network type printer.
||a driver for a print
device. Printer drivers that are appropriately packaged can
be installed using the Add Printer wizard or automatically when a printer is
added via the PrintUIEntry
function in printui.dll. They can also be installed on print
servers as Additional Drivers. Unfortunately, some print
device manufacturers for some of their models decide not to package
their printer drivers so that they can be installed by these standard
As the Windows operating system evolved,
the printer driver model (basically, the interface that the
printer driver is expected to implement and how it is expected to use that
interface) also evolved. Each model is referred to by a
Version number. To see the Version of a particular
printer driver, open the Printers (or Printers and Faxes
folder), click File, Server Properties and select the
Drivers tab. Just to confuse things, most printer driver
builders also apply a "version number" to each driver. This driver
"version number" usually bears no relationship to the printer driver
model Version discussed here, but rather indicate what
modification level or build that particular driver is.
Version 0 - Windows 95, 98 and ME
Version 1 - no "current" OS uses this model, although it may
have been used in versions of Windows NT prior to NT 4.0.
Version 2 - introduced with Windows NT 4.0 and also supported by
Windows 2000. Drivers of this version show up as "Windows NT 4.0 or 2000".
Version 3 - introduced with Windows 2000 and also supported
in Windows XP. Drivers of this version show up as "Windows 2000 or
||The name of the printer as
it is known on the computer that has it installed locally. In
Windows 2000 and XP, this will also be the name shown for a network
printer in the Printers (Windows 2000) or Printers and Faxes
(Windows XP) window. This is shown on the printer's General
|printui.dll is the part
of the operating system that implements various printer management
capabilities. PrintUIEntry is the entry point in printui.dll
that provides functions that can be invoked by the rundll32 command, in a
Command Prompt window, a command file, a script or a
For example, the following command
will invoke the PrintUIEntry function in printui.dll and
specify that the printer whose share name is printer available
on the print server server be added globally to the
target computer target.
printui.dll,PrintUIEntry /ga /c\\target /p\\server\printer
The following command will open a window that shows all of
the functions and arguments available via PrintUIEntry.
||When you right click on a
printer and select Properties, you get a window that shows a
series of Property Pages (sometimes called Tabs). What the
Property Pages are labelled and what is on each page is a
function of which version of Windows you have and the printer driver
installed for that printer. Every printer will have at least
Sharing, Ports pages. Other objects (e.g. a folder) also have
Property Pages. To open a printer's property pages:
- click Start,
- Settings (skip this step for Window XP)
- Printers (Printers and Faxes for Windows
- right click on the printer and select
|the concept of performing an action on one
computer (the target computer) while actually logged on and running
programs locally at a different computer (the source computer).
The computers may be on the same LAN or a different LAN that is connected
via one or more routers (or the Internet). Actions taken via Remote
Assistance, Remote Desktop and Terminal Services are not
considered remote actions in this context. Those tools are
great for providing support and administering other computers but actions
are actually performed locally on the computer that is the object of the
Remote Assistance, Remote Desktop or Terminal Services
||In Windows NT, 2000 and XP, a right is
an authority to carry out a particular action. Rights are binary;
either you have been granted the right or or not. For example, on
Windows 2000, by default the right to logon locally is granted to
members of the Administrators group, but not to members of the User group.
In Windows 2000 and XP, many rights are controlled by Local or Group
Policies. In contrast, see permission.
||In general networking terms, a router
is a (special purpose) computer that looks inside each data packet sent to
it and decides which of the several subnets it is connected to is the best
one to send the packet on to get it to its ultimate destination.
Most routers sold for home and small business
networking are actually multi-function devices combining some or all of
- Network Address Translation (NAT)
wireless access point
||A general purpose command
for executing functions in dynamic link libraries (dlls). It loads the
dll identified by the first parameter and invokes the specified function
using the supplied arguments. See
PrintUIEntry for an example of using rundll32.
||A program or series of commands stored as
ordinary text in a file, that can interpreted by a suitable script
interpreter to perform useful actions. Examples of common scripting
languages (with the corresponding file extensions in parenthesis) are Visual
Basic Script (vbs), Java Script (js) and Perl (pl)
||A computer that responds to a
request from another computer across the network is referred to as the
server. Thus, a computer that hosts a printer that has a
share is referred to as the print server. The other
computer is referred to as the client.
||A program that can be automatically started
as part of the operating system start-up process and that runs continuously
in the background. Specific information about the program and its
configuration is recorded in the operating system's registry. It's
this configuration information that identifies the program and turns it into
a service. Services can be manipulated using the
Services MMC snap-in (e.g. in Computer Management) or by the sc
A service may require other services to
operate; in this case, the first service is said to be dependent on
the these other services. If a depended upon service
isn't running or can not be started, the service(s) that are
dependent won't start either. For example, the Print Spooler
service is dependent on the Remote Procedure Call service.
||This the logical construct (or
object) that exposes a resource (e.g. a printer) to other computers
using Microsoft Windows Networking. One creates a share for a resource
using that resource's Sharing property page. Resources that
don't have a share are not directly visible to other computers
on the network.
||The name of the printer (or folder) share. This is the name used to identify the printer
(or folder) from
another computer over the network (e.g. in a net use
command or the /n
parameter of a rundll32 printui.dll,PrintUIEntry command). If
a share name has more than 12 characters or has embedded spaces, the
share will not be visible to Windows 95, 98 or ME
||See print spooler.
||Universal Naming Convention name. The
Windows Server 2003 TechCenter Glossary of Registry Terms (http://technet2.microsoft.com/windowsserver/en/library/c4dd12f8-d96a-476a-8e31-6c2043fe77a71033.mspx?mfr=true)
defines this as "A convention for naming files and other resources
beginning with two backslashes (\), indicating that the resource exists on a
network computer". A UNC name is a series of names separated by "\" where each name is
at a lower level in a hierarchy. For printers, there are
usually only two levels in the hierarchy; the computer name of the
print server and the share name of the printer. E.g.