DNA Genealogy
with emphasis on the Krause Branches

NOTE: Please help me!! If you find any broken Links when viewing pages associated with this web then please send me an email with "Broken Link" as the subject. The easiest way to report the information is to copy the URL address shown for the page that you were viewing and past this into the email and also do a copy and paste of the text where the link was found. Thank you.

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If you are new at DNA genealogy then don't be overwhelmed by the amount of information shown here as it is being presented for those who have absolutely no experience, as I had when I started, to those who are more experienced as they become more involved. Don't feel that you have to read all of the information and understand all of it as this will come with time. I keep adding to this page and the associated links as more is found and more explanations are required.  Welcome to the world of DNA Genealogy...


Introduction and Background:

Modern day technology has added another tool for the genealogist to further improve the accuracy of research results. DNA testing can be an aid in determining if certain branches of family names are related or not (NOTE Y-Chromosome DNA testing is done to trace the male ancestry). See Frequently asked questions for an explanation of terms and questions.
The following diagram shows what ancestral lines can be tracked by using DNA analysis. Note the color code for males is shown as Blue for the Y-Chromosome and Yellow for mtDNA and females is only yellow for the mtDNA.

Males present in last generation
Productivity level vs. Generation
  5 10 15 20
1 1 1 1 1
2 32 1024 32768 1.05 million
3 243 59049 14.34 million 3.48 billion

The very first item that needs to be discussed is the misgivings that some may have about privacy and not wanting anyone else to know what their Y-Chromosome DNA profile is. To better explain this a little example will show potentially how many males have the same profile that you may have. Since the Y-Chromosome DNA is passed from father to son and on average a change may occur every 500 years or 20 generations then using this as a starting point and assuming that a family has 12 children with half boys but only half of those live to maturity and reproduce then on average there are 3 males added to the population from each male that produces the next generation. At the start there is 1 male then 3, 9, 27. ... and after 19 generations there would be 1.16 billion males all with the same profile. However, the minimum number could be just one and you are that person. This is completely unrealistic but this example shows that the Y-Chromosome DNA profile is not a private thing like the DNA profile that is done to show paternity or to solve crimes which is unique to the individual. The table shown on the right hand side shows this effect for different males per generation that live to maturity and how the male population would grow after n-generations. The other factor that we as individuals owe to our children and the rest of society is that our line might be dying out as far as males are concerned and only by having a profile will it be possible to determine the ancestral lineage for all the females that may still be descendants. We use tombstones so that others remember that we existed and the old wooden ones that were used in the early days are long gone and today nobody knows who the people were and any info on birth or death dates. With more permanent material the limestone tombstone seemed good but with acid rain it again is being eroded away and the information lost. Modern day granite and concrete are more permanent but again they have a lifetime as well. A DNA profile on the other hand holds the ancient story of our male ancestry and it does not deteriorate with age provided that a male is still living at the time when we want to test that line. Now is the time to test and preserve our ancestral heritage. In some ways, the "Certificate Y-DNA" which shows the profile is as important or maybe even more important then a birth certificate.

The first step to take if you want to use DNA testing to determine your male lineage is to follow the steps outlined in the following section. This description is being prepared to assist others who are searching their roots with various surnames but the overall method is the same for any surname.

This short description is being prepared to track my Y-Chromosome DNA testing to determine what Krause branches are cousins to me. A short description on the accuracy of Genealogy data is shown on this additional page.

How DNA can help trace ancestors: The female has two X-Chromosomes while the male has one X-Chromosome and one Y-Chromosome. When conception occurs the two Chromosomes from the mother and the two from the father split to produce a life with one Chromosome from the mother and one from the father. If the embryo has an XY Chromosome then the Y came from the father and that is the same way that the father received his Y-Chromosome, from his father. Thus studies have determined that by analyzing the Y-Chromosome DNA, the male ancestry can be tracked. This is explained more clearly in the following background page by Dick Kraus.

Todd Johnson discusses the fundamentals of DNA and some may find his information useful as background information. The original link to Todd's document has been broken but I had a hardcopy of it in our Krause Klan Reunion hardcopy book.

A Kraus/Krause DNA Project has been started by Dick Kraus (no relation to me as far as I know) and I joined the group in Dec. 2004, and have now received results of my DNA testing. For those interested in tracking the progress of the Dick Kraus DNA Project and seeing the results the recent story section of Dick's web page should be used. Information on the ancient story is also available from Dick's page. The Ancient Krause lines have been updated on Dicks database at WorldConnect. Branch-One Krause shown as one of the subgroups on the Kraus/Krause DNA Project is shown in the following sections. A recent addition to the Kraus/Krause DNA Project allows the results of all members to be shown and the area of the world where the earliest known ancestor came from. The Y-Results tab on the Project page shows these details. There is a world map shown below the table of values and at the top of the map is a button to select which Group you wish to view. this button is labeled "Please Select a Group". Click in this button and select the appropriate group(called Branch xxx) or "All Group Members" Only those members that have a location for their earliest ancestor and coordinates are shown. Use the zoom button shown as a "+" or "-" to zoom in or out and the left mouse button will allow you to move the map to view the desired area. The Haplogroups are shown in the colored scale below the map and the color of the balloons match the Haplogroup

More information on the Human Journey and migration routes is available at the website for the Genographic Project - Human Migration, etc.

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DNATesting Labs

Several Testing labs exist but the one that I have used and found very good is that of FTDNA which has Surname Projects that assist persons with different surnames when tracking Y-Chromosome lines. New groups are being formed to allow the searching of mtDNA lines and these are found from the same Surname Projects as shown above.

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Schlochau-Branches Krause(see code on map)

I would encourage other male members of the Krause branches (#1, #8, #23, and #32)  that are from the Kreis Schlochau area of West Prussia that have been determined to live in close proximity to where my grand-father's family came from, to have a male member of their branch have a 37 Marker Y-DNA done so that it can proved or disproved any connections between the branches. Other Krause families that originated from the same general area of Kr. Rummelsburg, Schlochau and surrounding areas are also encouraged to have their DNA tested to determine if they also descend from a common ancestor that was in this area for an extended period of time (250-600 yrs.)

A scanned section of a map shows the location of the different families who are identified by the code numbers as shown by the small circles on the map. Family #520 should be shown to the right of #517 and would be located off the right side of the map as shown in another scanned version. Recently much of this map info is online from New Maps. The link for New Maps takes you to the page where you can select any map desired and then view it. The ones that I used are Gro(ss)Bblatt 40 & Gro(ss)Bblatt 41. I have the hard copy of these but now they are online.

512 Schildberg, 513 Richenwalde; 514 Elsenau; 515 Marienhof, Branch-23 [Branch Twentythree (also known as Branch-One-E) is the group from Marienhof, WPR, Germany(Ferdinand) to Minnisota, USA. A brother of Ferdinand, Carl Gottlieb Krause from ...................... WPR, went to Berrien Co., Michigan (a male descendant of this line had a Y-Chromosome DNA test and the results show a common ancestor to Branch-One-A). The Marienhof location is about a mile away from Friedrichshof where Branch-One was from.]

516 Kramsk; 517 Mauersin; 518 Friedrichshof, Branch-1-A (This is my branch located at 518, #517 is an uncle to my grand-father [DNA tests on this line would prove that the assumption that Herman was an uncle is either true or false]) DNA testing results have determined that an new branch called Branch-1-B is an exact DNA match to my DNA of Branch-1-A. This group is from Viartlum/Zettin area of Kr. Rummelsburg, Pommern, This area is just north of the area where the Schlochau groups are from(See map segment). It appears that his new group might be associated with the 'mother-lode' as this family has been in the same area for 250-600 years. Further DNA testing should give more information on other families that are descendants of this common ancestor. (Results of DNA testing received 9 May 2005) NOTE Further tests for the 25 and 37 Marker results showed differences at the following markers; 449, 456, and 570. However the first 20 markers were identical.

519 Friedland, Branch-32; DNA tests done on a member of this group show a difference of 1 at the second marker #390, the other 11 Allele numbers are the same as for Branch-One-A and Branch-One-B. These results indicate that Branch-32 has a common ancestor with Branch-1.

520 Waltersdorf, Branch-8  Branch-1-I  Recent Y-Chromosome results have confirmed that this branch has a common male ancestor to the other Branch-One lines.

 Posen (RedArrow) for Branch-1-F    This member has just recently been tested and the information from his DNA profile are in the process of being analyzed and compared to the others in Branch-One.

All of these Krause branches that are descendants of a common ancestor are summarized on a page that shows the  area where they originated in Prussia and Pommern (now part of Poland). See summarized page. (Includes Maps of  Prussian areas where different families originated.)

Another member who appears that his line may be connected to the Schlochau Branches but is not shown on the maps is going to have his Y-DNA tested and the steps to be followed in this search are outlined at Solving the Puzzle.

If your surname is Krause/Kraus/Krauss then it is possible to check if I have your ancestral line in my database. At the present time, I am tracking 46 different Krause/Kraus/Krauss lines. If you find your ancestors in my database, aek740a, at WorldConnect then find which Branch-xx that you are associated with and then send me an email ( in the subject line of the email change the xx to your Branch number) so that I can keep track of which Branches are being tested.

If you are interested in joining the Krause DNA Project. To join the project, just go to the following page and fill out the request form.
Krause/Kraus request form

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Initial thoughts on methodology to be used for DNA based genealogy research:

The following example is based on an email that I sent to a member of  a Lane group whose ancestors came to Calais, Washington Co., ME, in 1805 and are looking for earlier Lane ancestors possibly from the Lane families in MA.

My suggestion is that maybe you have your DNA analyzed 37-Marker to establish ancient history as well as more recent. The cost is about $230.00 US To give verification to your DNA being the same as your earliest known Lane ancestor then have another male descendant from a son of this first ancestor also have his DNA tested. That way it is only your Lane branch that is being tested. When the results are compared, you may find that someone from the MA group have already had their DNA analyzed and that will tell you how close the match is to your group.
To see what Krause names have already been tested just go to the following URL: http://www.ysearch.org/
Now do the following: (Test for your own name by replacing the name Krause by your name in the following explanation.)
  1. When on this page just click on "Search by last name"
  2. When that page comes up enter the name of "Krause" as the name you are searching.
  3. Then click Search.
  4. The results of this shows xx Names and yy Pedigrees.
  5. Click on the number in the Name or Variants
  6. When that page opens click on the small boxes for the desired last name or click on Check All to select all boxes.
  7. Once you have check marks in the desired boxes then click on Compare.
  8. A new screen opens so now select "genetic distance report" This shows that all have different markers that range from 0-14.
  9. To see what the actual DNS markers are, click on the back button and select "Show comparative Y-DNA results" Now you can see what the Y-DNA results were for the individuals. If you had your DNA then you would compare yours to that of the others and see if there is any similarity or how much yours is different. If only a distance of 1(one number is different by a value of 1) then you are most likely related.
  10. Alternate method is to search by Last Name  using a given ID value, mine is A7TJ6, Kr. Schlochau, Germany, then click on Search for user's with last name and variants. This gives results that show all the last name variants and the name Kraus shows the largest number of persons. Click on that item. When the results are shown click on Check All and do a Distance report. From the report the number of persons that match my value or are only a limited distance of 1-2 away is extremely small. I am the only one in the Y-Search database at the present time but as more tests are done this number will increase as more perfect or near matches are found.
  11. The Challenge:  Consider having your Y-Chromosome DNA tested and see which group you are descended from. A 12-Marker test is approx. $100.00 USD. This 12-Marker test is just a start and if the match is close to others from this Schlochau group then a full 37-Marker test should be done to prove which line you descend from. See explanation shown below on the 12 vs. 37 Marker test results.

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DNA Analysis: How many markers to test for??

When testing for the Y-Chromosome DNA there are three different test processes that test for either 12, 25, 37, or 67 markers. Many persons being tested use the 12-Marker test and that would seem to be sufficient but I have found that this is just a start and the more markers the better. In helping an individual whose father was adopted but the birth certificate for the father indicated the name of the grandfather. Based on this information, I first assumed that it would be a given for DNA testing to prove that this was the correct lineage. Since this person already had his 12-Marker DNA results then the ancestral line would be simple to find. However, when a match of all persons with the same 12-Marker DNA results turned up 102 persons and only two with the surname of the expected line, it became apparent that the 12-Marker DNA was insufficient to show the lineage as the other 100 persons also matched and all those surnames were also possible ancestral lines.
Another example here is one that you can do with the name Hodgens. Go to Y-Search and do the following steps(NOTE: The Y-Search screen will open in a new window so you can follow these directions while in the Y-Search screen):

  1. Click on "Search by last name" and when that screen comes up, enter the name "Hodgens" and click the Search button
  2. When the Last Name Results screen appears click on the number link in the Name or Variants column.
  3. The results of this shows that only three people have shown the surname of their Ancestor. One of these is the one with a User ID of 4UMSC. Click on the "Check All" link then "Compare"
  4. When the "Research Tools" screen opens click on the "Compare Y-DNA results" to show these values.
  5. When the results screen opens it clearly shows that the person with the ID of 4UMSC has only had the 12-Marker test done(results shown on 27 June 2006 as of 28 June 2006 many have been updated) and this is the same as one other person in the list. Some have the 25-Marker test and only a few the full 37-Marker test.
  6. Now click on the "Back" button on your browser to go back to the screen where you started with Y-Search. and now click on "Search for genetic matches"
  7. When the "Search for Genetic Matches" screen opens enter the User ID of 4UMSC and press the "Search" button.
  8. NOTE:: the results in the next four steps were from only 12-Marker results and are no-longer available since the 25-Marker results have been posted.)When this screen opens change the 8 to 12 in the number of markers to test for and leave all the other items the same as this will give you results of all persons with any last name that show a perfect match with the person shown as 4UMSC. Now click on the "Search" button.
  9. The results screen shows 15(when 12-Marker were shown now with the 25-Marker values the number has changed to 4) matches where the "Last Name" shows only a limited number with the name of Hodgson or any of the Variant names. What has happened here is a good example of how your can be lead astray by only using the 12-Marker test which in this case has found persons who are related but it might be from either illegitimate births or the common ancestor is several thousands of years in the past and may have existed prior to the time when people had surnames. When different surnames were chosen the people were related but the surname did not show this. What you have done is found your "Ancient Cousins"
  10. When on the screen showing all the names, click on "Check All" then "Compare" and when that screen opens click on "Compare Y-DNA results"
  11. The screen showing all of the Allele values for the people tested have the first 12-Markers identical but many of those tested have had more extensive tests and it is clearly seen that there are many differences in the markers from 13 and beyond.
  12. Since the markers for 4UMSC and others in the Hodgens group have been updated one must use the 25 as the number of markers to check in step 8 above and the maximum genetic distance of more then 0 as first used as the results with 0 only show the person tested. When the value of 2 is used it shows that two people match and the distance is 1. If the genetic distance is set for 3 then 14 are shown and for 4 is 85.
  13. To close this example off, my suggestion would be that the person with the ID of 4UMNC have further tests done so they can test for at least 25-Markers or better yet 37-Markers and when these results are available this same process be repeated to find who is related but in a much shorter time range (This had already been done but the values had not been posted at Y-Search. This also show how important it is to keep the values updated so that others who are searching will be using current and correct information). When you have a full 37-Marker test done then you may find that there will be differences between people with the same surname as the Allele values can change at any time even between a father and son. The question then becomes one of trying to determine when the change occurred and how significant is it. See trying to solve the puzzle for information on how one may go about trying to find your ancestry by using DNA testing.
  14. Whenever you use Y-Search to check for information as just described it is important to go back later and find if any updated information has been posted lately. When this webpage was made known to the administrator of the Hodgens data he updated the Y-Search information that had been first posted up to 2 years ago. Y-Search is the master database of Y-Chromosome values and should be the one that is kept updated as anyone using private webpages to keep this information loses much of the advantage of users who use the master database. Other information that should be maintained at Y-Search is that of the GED file and earliest know ancestor. The steps that one should use to keep this updated are explained in a special page that describes how this is done.
  15. A description on how one might possibly go about further testing is shown at a page for a Male Descendancy Tree

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Interpreting the results for Y-Chromosome, mtDNA, and Family Finder Tests:

FTDNA has an eBook that explains how one should go about interpreting their Genetic Genealogy Results. This document is available here.

Analysis of my DNA Results, including SNP Tests( Y-DNA & mtDNA):

Final results of my DNA sample have now been received and using the method explained in steps 1-9 above, my line is from Haplogroup I2a1b2(ISOGG-2012): K. Nordtvedt. A better way would be to show it as I-L161 as this will not keep changing like the other designations.) for my Krause lineage and T2b4a for my maternal line( see table below). A Figure of the Haplogroup Chart  shows how the human society evolved to present day family units. There may be more information embedded in the results but I am just learning how to read the data and more knowledge will come as I become more familiar with interpreting the values. A map of Europe showing the location of those who have the I2a Haplogroup and submitted their data is shown at Y-search I2a Haplomap of Europe. The red dots at grid co-ordinates 6 from the left side and 3 from the right side where 2 dots are just about on top of each other and the third is slightly above and to the left are the locations of 3 members of the Krause group who have been tested and found to have the same common ancestor. The designation for this group is Haplogroup I1b1* according to Ken Nordtvedt. Additional SNP tests have been done on my DNA and the results are shown in the following scanned diagram of Ken Nordtvedt. The Yellow shows positive results and the Blue are the negative results.
The following link shows a very good description of the evolution of mtDNA from Fossil Hominids.
My mtDNA Tree is shown with other females that would have the same results as mine.

Results from the mtDNA are shown in the following table.
HVR1 Haplogroup T2b
HVR1 differences from Cambridge Reference Sequence 16126C
HVR2 differences from Cambridge Reference Sequence 73G

CR differences from CRS
709A 750G 930A 1438G 1888A
2706G 4216C 4769G 4917G 5147A
7028T 8697A 8860G 9254G 10463C
11251G 11719A 11812G 13368A 14233G
14766T 14905A 15326G 15452A 15607G


Full Genome Sequence Library


At the present time of those with test results in the data-bank, 73 people show the same identical values for the HVR1 results which means that we share a common female ancestor sometime in approx.  the last 3000 years. Only 3 people show a match for the HVR2 with one of these showing a FGS(Full Genomic Sequence Match). One DNA cousin has been found using this method!!

A full study of the T2 Haplogroup has been done using persons(445) who had Full Genome Sequence(FGS) test results. The results of this study, done by Pike, Barton, Bauer, and Kipp, are now available and the 24 page PDF report is now available at the link shown..

Since my maternal grandparents were both from Norfolk Co., England, I have joined the East Anglia Geographic DNA Project. Maybe this will yield some results on the ancestral connections from my mother's side????? To see the lineage of my mothers side at WorldConnect just go to the link shown. My mother and Rosamond Geraldine Andrews were sisters.

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The Male Descendancy Tree and how to use it for DNA testing:

The link from this section is an attempt to show how testing might possibly be done based on a Male Descendancy Tree. Examples are given for the case where only one member has been tested from each branch and known information on a Common Ancestor has been found  from results of Y-Chromosome DNA testing. The other cases explained show how additional information can be gained if a second or third person from each line is tested. Male Descendancy Tree.

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Family Finder Tests

FTDNA has a new test called the Family Finder Test that is available for both males and females. This test looks at your complete DNA and compares the segments to test of others. If a match is found then by comparing the length of the values between the two people it is possible to determine how many generations back the common ancestor lived.

All of those from Branch-One Krause who have had a 37-Marker Y-Chromosome DNA test from FTDNA, or in two cases, a male and a female descendant of Branch-1A3, are now being tested for this Family Finder Test. The preliminary results are being shown in the following tabular form that shows the person tested, identified as 1-A1, 1-A2, 1-A3, 1-A4, 1-B, 1-C,..... 1-I. The numbers in the cells indicate what the results were for kinship between the persons tested. If the number in a  cell is 2/3 then that means that they are related over a range from 2-3 generations or the Relationship Range. The numbers shown in () indicate the actual relationship [example (1 1r) is first cousin once removed]. The next pair of numbers are for (Shared CM)/(Longest Block). No value in a cell indicates that no kinship has been found or the person was not part of the testing. The cells marked with an "X" indicate that you cannot be compared to yourself. A special chart showing the Y-Chromosome mutations for each Branch is available here. Cells marked with a "None" show no common relationship within the last 7 generations. If a "?" is shown then no data was shown for this relationship. Other people have also been tested but no results have been found that are for any Krause connections in their Pedigree. As more people are tested there may be additional information gained!!

Table of Results:
Jane Plowman
1-B 1-C 1-D 1-E 1-F 1-G1
1-H 1-I
1-A1 Arnie X 2/3(1 1 r)
2/3( 2nd 1 r)
None None NT None None None None None NT None
1-A2 Steven 2/3(1 1 r)
X (2nd 2 r)
2/4(3rd 1 r)
2nd Cousin
None None NT None None None None None NT None
1-A3 Jane Plowman 2/3(2nd 1 r)
(2nd 2 r)
X Nephew
3/5(2nd 2 r)
None None NT None None None None None NT None
1-A4 Darnel 3/5(3rd)
2/4(3rd 1 r)
X 3/5(3rd 1 r)
None None NT None None None None None NT None
1-A5 Jocelyn Father
2nd Cousin
3/5(2nd 2 r)
3/5(3rd 1 r)
X None None NT None None None None None NT None
1-B None None None None None X None NT None None None None None NT None
1-C None None None None None None X NT None None None None None NT None
1-E None None None None None None None NT X None None None None NT None
1-F None None None None None None None NT None X None None None NT None
1-G1 Chet None None None None None None None NT None None X 1(1st 1 r)
3/5(2nd 2 r)
NT None
1-G2 Gordon None None None None None None None NT None None 1 (1st 1 r)
X (3rd 1 r)
NT None
1-G3 Lonny None None None None None None None NT None None 3/5(2nd 2 r)
(3rd 1 r)
X NT None
1-I None None None None None None None NT None None None None None NT X

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